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GRA 530 (3)
Chapter 3&4

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Ryerson University
Graphic Communications
GRA 530
Natalia Gilewicz

Chapter #3 – Know Your Key Stakeholders         & Win Their Cooperation     STAKEHOLDERS • It is always people who make the technology produce, which is why we call them in the project world, stakeholders. • The 1 task of a PM is to identify its project’s stakeholders. • A stakeholder is: a. Anyone who contributes to the project or is impacted by its results b. People who under the guidance of the PM, establish agreements on the goals & constraints of the project, construct the strategies & schedules, & approve budgets. c. People & organizations hat ultimately judge the success of the project. • Although a project may contain numerous stakeholders, most of them fall into a predictable set of roles. • Some people will play more than one role & some roles will be filled by more than one person. • When searching for stakeholders, rather than asking Who is the customer? Or Who is the project team?, we should ask Who will make a contribution? & who will be affected by this project? PROJECT MANAGER • PMs must keep all the disparate groups in a project moving in “harmony” • The PM has the primary role in any project since he identifies the stakeholders, watches for overruns, and referees disputes. • Question the PM should ask himself as identifying himself as a stakeholder are: 1. What is my authority? 2. To whom do I report? 3. Does this mean ill be relieved of other responsibilities? 4. What are my expectation? • The role of a PM can be spread among multiple people with titles such as technical lead & team leader. PROJECT TEAM • All groups & individuals who contribute time, skills, and effort to the project are considered team members • In addition to the people within the company assigned to the project, they can also include contractors, vendors, and even customers • Determining who will be a part of the team happens at the start of the project, during definition & planning. The steps of this process are: 1. tasks are broken down until the different skill requirements’ emerge 2. the PM & sponsor begin recruiting people &organizations w/ necessary skills 3. the PM negotiates the involvement of these new team members 4. the PM clarifies the plan & ensures that it is understood by all team members 5. team member responsibilities are documented in both the statement of work & the project plan. • As managers, they will need to distinguish between part-time or temporary members & core teams, because communication strategies will be different for each. MANAGEMENT • Management refers to functional management or line management; Ex. Department managers, first level supervisors, or executive vice presidents; • Responsible for an organizational unit such as engineering or internal audit rather than for a specific project. • People w/ long term control over employees & other resources in the firm • Management support requires 3 kinds of management contribution: 1. Sponsorship: a specific executive accountable for project success 2. Resources: functional managers that assign specific people & resources to a project 3. Decision authority: managers that influence project decisions because they represent organizational policy, processes, & assets SPONSORS • Sponsor is the person with formal authority who is ultimately responsible for the projects success. Ex. Senior executive or a junior manager • 2 basic concepts in understanding the importance of sponsors to the project 1. sponsors are responsible for the project’s success 2. primary task is to help the project team be successful • Best sponsors know that they are sponsoring the project manager & team which is why another name given to the is CHAMPION • There are many ways sponsors lend their authority to projects: 1. Support the PM by issuing a project charter- an announcement that names a new project, the purpose of it & the PM 2. Assist in developing a responsibilities matrix- shows how different stakeholder groups will be involved in the project 3. Review & approve the statement of work (SOW)- describes the goals, constraints, & PM guidelines of a project 4. Review & approve the project plan- must endorse the cost-schedule-quality equilibrium represented in the plan 5. Advise the PM & discuss the status of the project w/ this manager at regular basis 6. Monitor & maintain the priority if the project relative to other projects 7. Assist the PM in overcoming organizational obstacles • Resource Managers: those managers who will have control over workers assigned to the project team & who will decide when they are available. • Ident
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