MHR405 – CH6
Communication: the process by which the information is exchanged between a sender and a receiver with the
goal of reaching mutual understanding.
Telework: an individual that does work from home, a satellite office or mobile office with a computer
connection to the main office.
Communication process model
Main components of the model are a sender, receiver, channel (medium) for transmission, barriers and a
Effective communication: information exchanged between a sender and receiver with the goals of reaching a
Message: thoughts and feelings that the communicator intends to suggest in the receiver
Feedback: any information that people receive about their behaviour or performance its effect on others or
comparison to a standard or expectation.
Nonverbal communication: all elements of communication that do not involve words
Most messages are conveyed through nonverbal communication rather than through the words themselves.
*Nonverbal communication includes tone of voice, pitch, loudness, body language, gestures and laughs.
Four Dimensions of nonverbal communication
1. Paralanguage/ variations in speech
Paralanguage: speech variations (include pitch, loudness, tempo, voice tune, duration, laughing,
crying) also includes silence and any exclamation.
2. Kinesics or body moments
Kinesics: the study of body movements, including posture
3. Facial and eye behaviour
Are used to sense others‟ emotional states
4. Proxemics ( a person‟s use of interpersonal space)
Proxemics: the study of interpersonal space across cultures
Social and intimidate
The closeness between another individual can be a good thing or not. Really depends on the
culture they believe in. North American are comfortable with 3 feet while Asian culture are
comfortable with 1 and half foot close.
Emotional intelligence: the ability to recognize and manage emotion in oneself and others
*important ways to communicate using tone and body language.
Barriers to communication: factors that block or significantly distant successful communication.
*Barriers can occur at transmission but can also exist at the forming, encoding and decoding phases of the
process. Communication barriers
1. Cultural differences
i. Low-context culture: use language primarily to express thoughts, feeling and ideas as clearly and
logically as possible.
ii. High context culture: value language as a very to maintain social harmony.
*high context cultures are like Asia/ Middle East learn to discover meaning from the context
*low context cultures are like Canada and Europe, tend to be more direct
2. Perceptual screen
i. How we interact with people in the world and are composed f the individual factors each person
brings, such as age, genders, values, beliefs, past experiences, cultural influences and individual
3. Language and jargon
i. Jargon: use of professional language // „reactive airways‟ instead of asthma
4. Status differences
i. Deleting, delaying or softening negative information as it moves up the hierarchy so that it
sounds more favourable.
6. Gender and defensiveness
i. **defensive communications tend to point the fingers and come across as evaluative rather than
descriptive. “do this, do that”
ii. *defensive communication in organizations can lead to a wide range of problems, including hurt
feelings, communication breakdowns, alienation in working relationships, destructive and
retaliatory behaviours, non-productive efforts and problem-solving failures.
Six characteristics of a Defensive communication climate
1. Evaluation: supervisor is critical and judgemental and will not accept explanation from subordinates
2. Control: Supervisor constantly directs in an authorit