MHR405 – Chapter 7
*Team: Two or more people with a common goal who one independent upon each other to achieve a particular task and
who hold themselves accountable to each other.
*Group: Two or more people with common interest and continuing interaction. Not necessarily have task independence,
Task independence: the degree of task-drivin interaction among work team members.
Formal teams are critical to organization success, since individuals working in organization cannot do
3 types of independence in teams
1. *Pooled interdependence
When task independence is pooled, it means that team member work individually but either draw from a
pool of common inputs or pool their outputs.
Ex. Baseball, orchestra, musicians
2. *Sequential independence
Such team rely on other for resources with the output of one members becoming the input of another.
Ex. Football teams, track and field
3. *Reciprocal independence
Such teams, members have reciprocal independence, with work being exchanged back and forth among
Highest form of task independence of the three; requires the best teamwork skills.
Ex. Emergency room -> doctors and nurses in different areas of expertise have all work with on patients at
the same time; exchanging info and work back and forth
Work teams in organization
Not responsible for a specific function Cross-functional teams and quality circles
**Functional Teams self-managed
Include employees who work together daily on must coordinate their work on similar tasks.
**Cross-functional teams: Include employees at the about the same level but from different work areas, who work
together to solve problems or have ongoing responsibility for a certain process or function.
**Problem-solving teams: members focus on a specific issue and develop a potential solution and are often empowered
to take action with defined limits.
Quality circles: are small groups of employees who work voluntary on company time, typically one hour per week, to
address work related problems such as quality control, cost reduction, production planning and techniques.
Self-directed work teams (SDWTS)
Are teams whose members have autonomy to carry out interdependent tasks and make decisions once reserved
Also called self-directed teams or autonomous work groups
Natural work group Control all work process
Responsibilities for hiring, team performance reviews and training
Members are separated by distance, time, or organizational boundaries, but are linked by communication
3 types of multicultural teams
1. **Token teams: in which all but one member come from the same background
2. *Bicultural teams: in which 2 or more members represent each of 2 distinct cultures
3. *Multicultural teams: in which members represent three or more ethnic backgrounds
**Tuckman’s classic five-stage model of team development
*Team must pass through each stage before it can become mature, productive and effective.
Stages are not always smooth due to demographic diversity, persistent conflict, and formation of sub-teams
1. Forming: characterized by politeness, superficiality and uncertainty
Challenges of this stage is silence, self-consciousness and superficiality
Game exercise and team tasks that requires teamwork can help overcome these challenges
2. Storming: characterized by confusion, conflict, power struggles
Faultlines – subgroups emerges naturally within teams
Disagreements occurs over goals, procedures and various roles
Team need to refocus their goals; use supportative communication strategies to understand and identify
their source of conflict.
3. Norming (trust and structure): characterized by cohesion, trust and clarification of group norms and roles.
4. Performing(team reaches full potential!): at which the team achieved synergy and is reading its full potential
Also called ‘hot teams’ > which working is engaging
Members make significantly progress -> high level performance
5. Adjourning(disbanding): The final stage of team development for temp teams, characterized by concern with
‘wrapping up’ or finishing
Referred as ‘finishing’
Punctuated Equilibrium Model
1. First team meeting (inertia)
2. Midpoint transition (midlife crisis)
3. Completion (new interia)
Diversity: all forms of individual difference include race, ethnicity, cultural, gender, age, material status and etc.
When teams are highly in terms of cultural and/or gender, the challenges to team effectiveness increase and
management skills are challenged. *Team effectiveness is considered to have been achieved when the following 3 criteria are met.
1. *Team survives
2. *Meets or exceeds its objectives
3. *And the needs of team members gave been satisfied (to the extent that they are willing to working together
Overall Team Effectiveness Model (OTEM)
Team effectiveness depends on…
1. Organizational Context
Context varies and includes the organizational culture, sponsorship, support and direction, the amount and type of
resources available to the team and rewards achieved.
Organizational sponsor or leader who has set