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MHR405 - ch7.docx

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Human Resources
MHR 405
Louis Pike

MHR405 – Chapter 7 *Team: Two or more people with a common goal who one independent upon each other to achieve a particular task and who hold themselves accountable to each other. *Group: Two or more people with common interest and continuing interaction. Not necessarily have task independence, teams do. Task independence: the degree of task-drivin interaction among work team members.  Formal teams are critical to organization success, since individuals working in organization cannot do everything themselves. 3 types of independence in teams 1. *Pooled interdependence  When task independence is pooled, it means that team member work individually but either draw from a pool of common inputs or pool their outputs.  Ex. Baseball, orchestra, musicians 2. *Sequential independence  Such team rely on other for resources with the output of one members becoming the input of another.  Ex. Football teams, track and field 3. *Reciprocal independence  Such teams, members have reciprocal independence, with work being exchanged back and forth among them.  Highest form of task independence of the three; requires the best teamwork skills.  Ex. Emergency room -> doctors and nurses in different areas of expertise have all work with on patients at the same time; exchanging info and work back and forth Work teams in organization Not responsible for a specific function  Cross-functional teams and quality circles **Functional Teams  self-managed  Include employees who work together daily on must coordinate their work on similar tasks. **Cross-functional teams: Include employees at the about the same level but from different work areas, who work together to solve problems or have ongoing responsibility for a certain process or function. **Problem-solving teams: members focus on a specific issue and develop a potential solution and are often empowered to take action with defined limits. Quality circles: are small groups of employees who work voluntary on company time, typically one hour per week, to address work related problems such as quality control, cost reduction, production planning and techniques. Self-directed work teams (SDWTS)  Are teams whose members have autonomy to carry out interdependent tasks and make decisions once reserved for managers.  Also called self-directed teams or autonomous work groups  Natural work group  Control all work process  Responsibilities for hiring, team performance reviews and training **Virtual team  Members are separated by distance, time, or organizational boundaries, but are linked by communication technologies. 3 types of multicultural teams 1. **Token teams: in which all but one member come from the same background 2. *Bicultural teams: in which 2 or more members represent each of 2 distinct cultures 3. *Multicultural teams: in which members represent three or more ethnic backgrounds **Tuckman’s classic five-stage model of team development  *Team must pass through each stage before it can become mature, productive and effective.  Stages are not always smooth due to demographic diversity, persistent conflict, and formation of sub-teams 1. Forming: characterized by politeness, superficiality and uncertainty  Challenges of this stage is silence, self-consciousness and superficiality  Game exercise and team tasks that requires teamwork can help overcome these challenges 2. Storming: characterized by confusion, conflict, power struggles  Faultlines – subgroups emerges naturally within teams  Disagreements occurs over goals, procedures and various roles  Team need to refocus their goals; use supportative communication strategies to understand and identify their source of conflict. 3. Norming (trust and structure): characterized by cohesion, trust and clarification of group norms and roles. 4. Performing(team reaches full potential!): at which the team achieved synergy and is reading its full potential  Also called ‘hot teams’ > which working is engaging  Members make significantly progress -> high level performance 5. Adjourning(disbanding): The final stage of team development for temp teams, characterized by concern with ‘wrapping up’ or finishing  Referred as ‘finishing’ Punctuated Equilibrium Model 1. First team meeting (inertia) 2. Midpoint transition (midlife crisis) 3. Completion (new interia) Diversity: all forms of individual difference include race, ethnicity, cultural, gender, age, material status and etc.  When teams are highly in terms of cultural and/or gender, the challenges to team effectiveness increase and management skills are challenged. *Team effectiveness is considered to have been achieved when the following 3 criteria are met. 1. *Team survives 2. *Meets or exceeds its objectives 3. *And the needs of team members gave been satisfied (to the extent that they are willing to working together again) Overall Team Effectiveness Model (OTEM) Team effectiveness depends on… 1. Organizational Context  Context varies and includes the organizational culture, sponsorship, support and direction, the amount and type of resources available to the team and rewards achieved.  Organizational sponsor or leader who has set
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