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Chapter 4

Chapter 4

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Human Resources
MHR 405
Sharon Matthews

CHAPTER 4 MOTIVATION AT WORK WHAT IS MOTIVATION AND WHY DOES IT MATTER Motivation: the set of forces, internal (individual needs and motives) and external (environmental forces) that initiate work-related behaviour and determine its form, direction, intensity and duration Intrinsic Motivation: a person’s internal drive to do something because of such things as interest, challenge and personal satisfaction Extrinsic Motivation: is defined as motivation that comes from outside the person such as pay, tangible rewards or a promotion NEED THEORIES OF MOTIVATION Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Need Hierarchy: Maslow’s theory that people are motivated by five sets of needs, and that as a lower need is gratified, the person becomes motivated by the next need in the hierarchy Progression Hypothesis: the lowest level of ungratified need motivates behavior 1 5. Self-actualization needs: need to fulfill ones potential and be all that one can be 2 4. Esteem needs: need for recognition and status 3 3. Belongingness need: need for love, friendship and community 4 2. Safety and Security needs: need for safety and predictability 5 1. Physiological Needs: need for food and shelter Theory X and Theory Y Theory X: a set of assumptions of how to manage individuals who are motivated by lower-order needs (physiological and safety needs) Theory Y: a set of assumptions of how to manage individuals who are motivated by higher-order needs (belongingness, esteem and self actualization) ERG Theory A simplified version of Maslow’s hierarchy from five to three need categories The existence need addressed Maslow’s physiological and physical safety needs, relatedness addressed the needs for interpersonal safety, belongingness and interpersonal esteem, and growth referred to self esteem and self actualization Frustration Regression Hypothesis: theory that when people are frustrated in their ability to satisfy a higher-order need they regress to the next lower category of needs and intensify their desire to gratify these needs McClelland’s Theory of Learned Needs This theory suggests that secondary needs were operating as well. These secondary needs; (1) did not progress in a hierarchical manner, (2) were learned, (3) varied based on an individual’s personality Need for Achievement Is a learned need that concerns issues of excellence, competition, challenging goals, persistence and overcoming difficulties www.notesolution.com An individual with a high need for achievement seeks excellence in performance, enjoys difficult and challenging goals, and is persevering and competitive in work activities Individuals with a high need for achievement have three unique characteristics, (1) they set goals that are moderately difficult yet achievable, (2) they like to receive feedback on their progress toward these goals, (3) they do not like having external events or other people interfere with their progress toward the goals Need for Power Is a learned need that is concerned with making an impact on others, the desire to influence others, the urge to change people or events, and the desire to make a difference in life. The need for power is interpersonal, because it involves influence attempts directed at other people Status is an important consideration for people with a high need for power Need for Affiliation Is a learned need concerned with establishing and maintaining warm, close, intimate relationships with other people People with a high need for affiliation are motivated to express their emotions and feelings to others while expecting other people to do the same in return People who have moderate to low needs for affiliation are more likely to feel comfortable working alone for extended periods of time Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory of Motivation Herzberg defined motivators as intrinsic factors in the job that lead to satisfaction, such as achievement and the challenge of work itself, and hygiene factors as extrinsic factors surrounding the job that lead to dissatisfaction such as company policies and pay Motivators Identified as responsibility, achievement, recognition, advancement, and the work itself. These are more important that hygiene factors as they directly affect a persons motivational drive to do a good job Job enrichment: designing or redesigning jobs by incorporating motivational factors into them Hygiene Factors Job dissatisfaction occurs when the hygiene factors are either not present or not sufficient Hygiene factors consist of; policy and administration, technical supervision, salary, etc. Two conclusion can be drawn, (1) hygiene factors are of some importance up to a threshold level but beyond the threshold there is little value in improving the hygiene factors, (2) the presence of motivators is essential to enhancing employee motivation to excel at work Critisms of this theory: (1) research results have not shown a clear dichotomization of incidents into hygiene and motivator facts, (2) absence of
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