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Chapter 3

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Human Resources
MHR 405
Robin Church

1 Chapter 3 Perceiving Ourselves and Others in Organizations SELF-CONCEPT: HOW WE PERCEIVE OURSELVES (LO1)  Self-concept – an individual’s self-beliefs and self-evaluations  “who am I?” and “How do I feel about myself?” Self-Concept Complexity, Consistency, and Clarity  complexity – number of distinct and important roles or identities that people perceive about themselves  low complexity when individual’s most important identities are highly interconnected  internal consistency – high internal consistency when most self-perceived roles require similar personality traits, values, and other attributes  low consistency when self-perceptions require characteristics that conflict with characteristics required for other aspects of your self  clarity – degree to which you have a clear, confidently defined, and stable self-concept  complexity is important because it protects our self-evaluation when roles are threatened/damaged  these describe characteristics of a person’s self-concept  in addition are four processes that shape self-concept and influence person’s decisions/behavior Self-Enhancement  self-enhancement – person’s inherent motivation to have a positive self-concept, such as being competent, attractive, lucky, ethical, and important  positive consequence – individuals experience better mental and physical health when self-concept is viewed positively  negative consequence – self-enhancement can make bad decisions (over-confident) Self-Verification  self-verification – a person’s inherent motivation to confirm and maintain his/her existing self-concept  occurs when we seek out feedback that supports our self-view  several implications for org. behavior such as: 1. affects perceptual process because employees are more likely to remember info that is consistent with self-concept and ignore info that seems inconsistent 2. clearer the individuals self-concept, the less he/she will accept feedback that contradicts self-concept 3. employees are motivated to interact with others who affirm their self-concept, this affects how well they get along with boss/team members Self-Evaluation  defined by three concepts: self-esteem, self-efficacy, and locus of control 1. Self Esteem – extent to which people like, respect, and are satisfied with themselves - rating of success at social inclusion - people with high self-esteem are less influenced by others, tend to persist in spite of failure, and think more rationally 2. Self-Efficacy – person’s belief that they have the ability, motivation, correct role perceptions, and favourable situation to complete a task successfully - those with self-efficacy have “can do “ attitude - MARS model – motivation, ability, role perception, situational factors 2 3. Locus of Control – person’s general belief about the amount of control they have over personal life events - individuals with more of internal locus of control believe that personal characteristics influence life’s outcomes - those with more external locus of control believe events in life are due mainly to fate, luck, or conditions in external environment - internals are more satisfied with job, cope better in stressful situations, and are motivated by performance-based reward systems Social Self  social identity theory – theory that explains that people define themselves by the groups to which they belong or have an emotional attachment  social identity is complex combo of many memberships arranged in hierarchy of importance  one factor determining importance is how easily we are identified as members of reference group  second factor is minority status in a group PERCEIVING THE WORLD AROUND US (L02)  perception - process of receiving info about and making sense of the world around us  perception begins when environmental stimuli are received through our senses  selective attention – process of attending to some info received by our senses and ignoring other info  selective attention is influenced by characteristics of object/person being perceived particularly: - size - intensity - motion - repetition - novelty  expectations and assumptions cause us to screen out potentially important information  another selective attention problem is confirmation bias – tendency to screen out info that is contrary to our decisions, beliefs, values, and assumptions, and to more readily accept confirming information Perceptual Organization and Interpretation  categorical thinking – organizing people and objects into preconceived categories that are stored in our long- term memory  perceptual grouping principles
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