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Chapter 4

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Ryerson University
Human Resources
MHR 405
Robin Church

Chapter 4 Workplace Emotions, Attitudes, and Stress EMOTIONS IN THE WORKPLACE (LO1)  Emotions – physiological, behavioural, and psychological episodes experienced toward an object, person, or event that create a state of readiness  Differs from moods, which are not directed toward anything in particular and last longer Types of Emotions  All emotions have two common features 1. emotions generate a global evaluation (called core affect) that something is positive or negative 2. all emotions produce some level of activation; they generate some level of energy within us Emotions, Attitudes, and Behaviour  attitudes – cluster of beliefs, assessed feelings, and behavioural intentions toward a person, object, or event (called an attitude object)  attitudes are judgments whereas emotions are experiences  experts believed attitudes could be understood by three cognitive components which are: 1. Beliefs – established perceptions about the attitude object – what you believe to be true. Perceived facts acquired from experience and other forms of learning 2. Feelings – these represent your conscious positive or negative evaluations of the attitude object. Feelings derive from beliefs 3. Behavioral intentions - represent your motivation to engage in a particular behavior regarding the attitude object. Feelings motivate your intentions Cognitive Dissonance – a condition that occurs when we perceive an inconsistency between our beliefs, feelings, and behavior MANAGING EMOTIONS AT WORK (LO2)  Emotional labour - effort, planning, and control needed to express organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions  Display rules – norms requiring us to display specific emotions and to hide other emotions Emotional Dissonance – the conflict between required and true emotions - the problem can be minimized through deep acting rather than surface acting - surface acting involves pretending to show required emotions but continue to hold different internal feelings - deep acting involves changing true emotions to match required emotions EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE  emotional intelligence (EI) – set of abilities to perceive and express emotion, assimilate emotion in thought, understand and reason with emotion, and regulate emotion in oneself and others  model organizes EI into four dimensions which are: 1. Self-awareness of emotions – this is the ability to perceive and understand the meaning of your own emotions. Self-aware people are better able to listen in on their emotional responses to specific situations 2. Self-management of emotions – EI includes ability to manage your own emotions. This includes generating and suppressing emotions 3. Awareness of others’ emotions – refers to ability to perceive and understand the emotions of other people. Awareness of other people’s emotions is represented by empathy. Social awareness goes beyond empathy to include being organizationally aware 4. Management of others’ emotions – this dimension involves managing other people’s emotions. Consoling people who feel sad, inspiring team members, etc.  These 4 dimensions of EI form a hierarchy, managing other’s emotions being the highest and awareness of your own emotions as the lowest Improving Emotional Intelligence  personal coaching, plenty of practice, and frequent feedback are particularly effective at developing EI  also increases with age; process called maturity JOB SATISFACTION (LO3)  job satisfaction – a person’s evaluation of his or her job and work context  appraisal of the perceived job characteristics, work environment, and emotional experiences at work  many employees are reluctant to reveal their feelings, don’t want
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