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MHR 405 (330)
Chapter 13

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Ryerson University
Human Resources
MHR 405
Frank Miller

Chapter 13: Organizational Change and development Planned Change – Change that is an intentional and goal-oriented activity 3 Types of Change  Development Change – The Improvement of skill, method, or condition that for some reason does not measure up  Transitional Change – Change that is introduced to have an organization evolve slowly; current ways of doing things are replaced by new  Transformational Change – Change in which the organization moves to radically different and sometimes unknown, future state Targets of change  People and culture  Structure –restructure, downsize, merge with another company, form strategic alliances. Or outsource part of their operations are ways of changing the organization structure  Technology  Work processes and tasks Downsizing – Intended reduction in the number of employees; 6 practices in successful downsizing 1. Implement from top to bottom but also bottom to the top 2. Was short term and across the board but also long term and selective in emphases 3. Paying attention to those who lost their job and who did not 4. Targeted internal and external 5. Resulted in small organization and large integrated organization 6. Was emphasized as a means to an end as well as an end itself Reactance- A negative reaction that occurs when individuals feel that their personal freedom is threatened Reactions to Change  Fear of the unknown – Change brings uncertainty Example: Introduction of computer  Fear of loss – Material or Psychological Example: Job  Fear of failure-Change may increase workload and they may not be to complete; expectations  Reluctance to break routine  Cynicism – A loss of faith in the leaders of change based on the history of change attempts that have not been entirely successful  Selective perception – Select of the info we get and it does fit our mental model we ignore it Page 1 of 3 Active Inertia – A tendency to respond to the most disruptive changes by accelerating activities that succeeded in the past 3 causes of organization resistance to change  Limited Focus of Change – Lots of departments and change fails because change target are too limited  Conflicting Team Norms – If conflicts team norms, resistance will be evident  Conflicting organizational systems – Change happens but company policies, selection, training, and reward system stay same Lewin’s Force Field Analysis Model  Unfreezing – The first step in Lewin’s change model, in which individuals are encouraged to discard old behaviours by shaking up the equilibrium state that maintains the status quo Example: Realization of being overweight and wanting to do something about it  Moving- The second step in Lewin’s change model, in which new attitudes, values, and behaviours are substituted for old ones  The final step, in which new attitudes, values, behaviours are established as the new status quo Managing Individual Reaction to change  Training and Education – Early and specific training helps people gain mastery and overcome fear of failure  Communication – Talk to employees about every
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