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Chapter 5

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Ryerson University
Human Resources
MHR 405
Robin Church

MHR Chapter 5 Motivation: The forces within a person that affect his or her direction, intensity and persistence of voluntary behaviour Employee Engagement: Individual’s emotional and cognitive motivation, particularly a focused, intense, persistent and purposive effort towards work related goals Drives: Hardwired characteristics of the brain that correct deficiencies or maintain an internal equilibrium by producing emotions to energize individuals. Intrinsic Motivation: Internal drive to do something because of such things as interest, challenge, and personal satisfaction. Extrinsic Motivation: Motivation that comes from outside the person such as praise, pay, tangible rewards, or a promotion. Needs: Goal directed forces that people experience. Figure 5.1 Drives, needs and behaviour Maslow’s needs hierarchy theory: A motivation theory of needs arranges in a hierarchy, whereby people are motivated to fulfill a higher need as a lower one becomes gratified Figure 5.2 Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy Need for achievement (nAch): A need in which people want to accomplish reasonable challenging foals. And desire unambiguous feedback and recognition for their success Need for Affiliation (nAff): A need in which people seek approval from others, conform to their wishes and expectation, and avoid conflict and confrontation Need for Power (nPow): A need in which people want to control their environment, including people and material resources, to benefit either themselves (personalized power) or others (socialized power) Four Drive theory: A motivation theory that is based on the innate drives to acquire, bond, learn, and defend, and that incorporates both emotions and rationality Figure 5.3 Four drive theory of motivation Expectancy theory: A motivation theory based on the idea that work effort is directed toward behaviours that people believe will lead to desired outcomes. Figure 5.4 Expectancy theory of motivation Increasing E-to-P Expectancies Behavioural modeling  Assuring employees they have  Increasing P-to-O Expectancies competencies  Measure performance accurately  Person-job matching  More rewards for good performance  Provide role clarification and sufficient  Explain how rewards are linked to resources performance Increasing Outcome Valences Increasing Intrinsic Valences  Ensure that rewards are valued  Person-job matching  Individualize rewards  Minimize countervalent outcomes Organizational Behaviour modification: A theory that explains employee behaviour in terms of the antecedent conditions and consequences of that behaviour. We “operate” on the environment  alter behaviour to maximize positive and minimize adverse consequences Learning is viewed as completely dependent on the environment Human thoughts are viewed as unimportant Figure 5.6 A B Cs of organizational behaviour modification Behaviour modification is used in: Behaviour modification problems include:  everyday life to influence Behaviour of  Reward inflation others  Variable ratio schedule viewed as  Company programs to reduce gambling absenteeism, improve safety, etc.  Denies relevance of cognitive processes in learning Social Cognitive Theory: A theory that explains how learning and motivation occur by observing and modeling others as well as by anticipating the consequences of out behaviour. Self-Reinforcement: Reinforcement that occurs when an employee has control over a reinforce but doesn’t take it until completing a self-set goal Goal setting: The process of motivating employees and clarifying their role perceptions by establishing performance objectives. Effective Goal Setting Characteristics 1. Specific – measureable change within a time frame 2. Relevant – within employee’s control and responsibilities 3. Challenging – raise level of effort 4. Accepted (commitment) – motivated to accomplish the goal 5. Participative (sometimes) – improves acceptance and goal quality 6. Feedback – information available about progress toward goal Balanced scorecard (BSC): A goal setting and reward system that translates the organization’s vision and mission into specific, measurable performance goals related to financial, customer, internal, and learning/ growth (i.e., human capital) processes. Strengths- based coaching: A positive organizational behaviour approach to coaching and feedback that focuses on building and leveraging the employee’s strengths rather than trying to correct his or her weakness. Multisource (360-degree feedback): Information about an employee’s performance collected from a full circle of people, including subordinates, peers, supervisors, and customers Distributive Justice: Perceived fairness in the individual’s ratio of outcomes to contributions compared with a comparison to other’s ratio outcomes to contributions Procedural Justice: Perceived fairness of the procedures used to decide the distribution of resources Equity Theory: A theory explaining how people develop perceptions of fairness in the distribution and exchange of resources. Figure 5.7 Equity theory model
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