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Chapter 5

Chapter 5 Foundations of Employee Motivation.docx

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Human Resources
MHR 405
Robin Church

Chapter 5 Foundations of Employee Motivation Motivation – the forces within a person that affect his or her direction, intensity, and persistence of voluntary behaviour Employee engagement - individual's emotional and cognitive (rational) motivation, particularly a focused, intense, persistent, and purposive effort toward work-related goals. It is typically described as an emotional involvement in, commitment to, and satisfaction with the work. Drives (also calledprimary needs), which we define as hardwired characteristics of the brain that attempt to keep us in balance by correcting deficiencies. Needs as goal-directed forces that people experience. EXHIBIT 5.1 DRIVES, NEEDS, AND BEHAVIOUR MASLOW'S NEEDS HIERARCHY THEORY LO3 Maslow's needs hierarchy theory A motivation theory of needs arranged in a hierarchy, whereby people are 1) physiological (need for food, air, water, shelter, etc), 2) safety (need for security and stability), 3) belongingness/love (need for interaction with and affection from others), 4) esteem (need for self-esteem and social esteem/status), 5) self-actualization (need for self-fulfillment, realization of one's potential). EXHIBIT 5.2 MASLOW'S NEEDS HIERARCHY Limitations and Contributions of Maslow's Work Holistic perspective. Maslow explained that the various needs should be studied together (holistically) because human behaviour is typically initiated by more than one need at the same time. Humanistic perspective. Maslow introduced the then-novel idea that higher-order needs are in18uenced by personal and social influences, not just instincts. In other words, he was among the first to recognize that human thoughts (including self-concept, social norms, past experience) play a role in motivation. Positive perspective. Maslow popularized the previously developed concept of self-actualization, suggesting that people are naturally motivated to reach their potential and that organizations and societies need to be structured to help people continue and develop this motivation. LEARNED NEEDS THEORY Need for Achievement People with a strong need for achievement (nAch) want to accomplish reasonably challenging goals through their own effort. They prefer working alone rather than in teams, and they choose tasks with a moderate degree of risk (i.e., neither too easy nor impossible to complete). High-nAch people also desire unambiguous feedback and recognition for their success. Money is a weak motivator, except when it provides feedback and recognition. 24 In contrast, employees with a low nAch perform their work better when money is used as an incentive. Successful entrepreneurs tend to have a high nAch, possibly because they establish challenging goals for themselves and thrive on competition. 25 Need for Affiliation Need for affiliation (nAff) refers to a desire to seek approval from others, conform to their wishes and expectations, and avoid conflict and confrontation. People with a strong nAff try to project a favourable image of themselves. They tend to actively support others and try to smooth out workplace conflicts. High nAff employees generally work well in coordinating roles to mediate conflicts and in sales positions where the main task is cultivating long-term relations. However, they tend to be less effective at allocating scarce resources and making other decisions that potentially generate conflict. People in decision-making positions must have a 26 relatively low need for affiliation so that their choices and actions are not biased by a personal need for approval. Need for Power People with a high need for power (nPow)want to exercise control over others and are concerned about maintaining their leadership position. They frequently rely on persuasive communication, make more suggestions in meetings, and tend to publicly evaluate situations more frequently. McClelland pointed out that there are two types of nPow. Individuals who enjoy their power for its own sake, use it to advance personal interests, and wear their power as a status symbol have a high need forpersonalized power. Others mainly have a high need for socialized power because they desire power as a means to help others. McClelland argues that effective leaders should have a high need for socialized rather than personalized power. They must have a high degree of altruism and social responsibility and be concerned about the consequences of their actions on others. Learning Needs McClelland believed that needs can be learned (more accurately, strengthened or weakened), and the training programs he developed supported that proposition. In his achievement motivation program, trainees wrote achievement-oriented stories and practised achievement-oriented behaviours in business games. They also completed a detailed achievement plan for the next two years and formed a reference group with other trainees to maintain their new-found achievement motivation. FOUR-DRIVE THEORY Drive to acquire. This is the drive to seek, take, control, and retain objects and personal experiences. The drive to acquire extends beyond basic food and water; it includes enhancing one's self-concept through relative status and recognition in society. Thus, it is the foundation of competition and the basis of our need for esteem. Four-drive theory states that the drive to acquire is insatiable because the purpose of human motivation is to achieve a higher position than others, not just to fulfill one's physiological needs. Drive to bond. This is the drive to form social relationships and develop mutual caring commitments with others. It explains why people form social identities by aligning their self-concept with various social groups (see Chapter 3). It may also explain why people who lack social contact are more prone to serious health problems. 31The drive to bond motivates people to cooperate and, consequently, is a fundamental ingredient in the success of organizations and the development of societies. Drive to learn. This is the drive to satisfy our curiosity, to know and understand ourselves and the environment 32 around us. When observing something that is inconsistent with or beyond our current knowledge, we experience a tension that motivates us to close that information gap. In fact, studies have revealed that people who are removed from any novel information will crave even boring information; the drive to learn generated such strong emotions that the study participants eventually craved month-old stock reports! The drive to learn is related to the higher-order needs of growth and self-actualization described earlier. Drive to defend. This is the drive to protect ourselves physically and socially. Probably the fi
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