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MHR 405 (330)
Chapter 3

Chapter 3 - Perceiving Ourselves and Others in Organizations

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Human Resources
MHR 405
David Chalmers

Chapter Three – Perceiving Ourselves and Others in Organizations Self-concept: an individuals self-beliefs and self-evaluations - We compare images of a job with our current (perceived) and desired (ideal) images of ourselves - Influences a persons well-being, behaviour and performance - Self-concept diversity helps people adapt but too much causes internal tension and conflict - Complexity – the number of distinct and important roles or identities that people perceive about themselves. See yourself in more than one role. Determined by separation of those selves. 1. Low complexity when the important identities are highly interconnected – work related 2. Protects self-evaluation when roles are damaged. E.g. person with low complexity suffer severe loss when they experience failure - Consistency – internal. High internal consistency when most of their self-perceived roles requite similar personality traits, values and other attributes 1. Low consistency – self-perceptions require personal characteristics that conflict with characteristics required for other aspects of self. E.g. a exacting engineer but also a risk- oriented skier - Clarity – the degree to which you have a clear, confidently defined, and stable self-concept. Confident about “who we are”. 1. Clarity increases with age as well with the consistency of person’s multiple selves Self-enhancement – inherent motivation to perceive themselves as competent, attractive, lucky, ethical and important - Positive consequences – better mental and physical health - Negative consequences – can result in bad decisions Self-verification – trying to confirm and maintain their self-concept. Important in guiding thoughts and actions - Occurs when seeking feedback that supports self-view - Effects perceptual process – remembering information that is similar to self-concept - Clear self-concepts – more likely to not accept contradicting feedback - Employees are motivated to work with people who affirm their self-concept Self- evaluation – defined by three concepts 1. Self-esteem – extent to which people like, respect, and are satisfied with themselves (self- evaluation, social inclusion, rational thinkers) 2. Self-efficacy – belief that they can successfully complete a task (“can do”). Perception of one’s competence to perform across a variety of situations 3. Locus of control – general beliefs about the amount of control he or she has over personal life events. Internal (positive self-evaluation) vs. external Social self – personal identity (internal self-concept) and social identity (external self-concept) - Social identity theory – people define themselves by the groups to which they belong or have an emotional attachment - People try to balance social identities but priority for personal identity (uniqueness) is more important Perception – process of receiving information about and making sense of the world around us Selective attention – process of attending to some information received by our senses and ignoring other information. Influenced by the context in which the target is perceived. Confirmation bias – tendency for people to screen out information that is contrary to their decisions, beliefs, values, and assumptions; Occurs when an opinion or theory is formed about something Categorical thinking – non-conscious process of making sense of information and stored in long-term memory - Grouped together based on similarity or proximity, the need for cognitive closure, trends in ambiguous information Mental models – achieving goals with a degree of predictability and sanity – road maps of environments. Internal representations of the external world; Fill in missing pieces. Sometimes makes it difficult to see the world in different ways or recognition of new opportunities - To change mental models, you need to question them Stereotyping – perceptual process of adopting and applying beliefs about the characteristics of identifiable groups “collective beliefs” - Formed by personal experience and through media - “Energy saving” process – simplifies understandings of the world - People have an innate need to understand and anticipate how others will behave - Enhances people’s self-concept. Social identity and self-enhancement occurs” 1. Categorization – categorizing people into distinct groups 2. Homogenization – assume people in each group are similar 3. Differentiation – assigning more favourable characteristics to people in our groups than to people in other groups - Unintentional (systemic) discrimination – decision makers rely on stereotypes to establish notions of the ideal person in specific roles - Intentional discrimination or prejudice – people hold negative attitudes to people in particular groups Attribution Theory – deciding whether an observed behaviour or even is cause mainly by the person or the environment - Rely on three ru
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