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Chapter 5

Chapter 5 – Foundations of Employee Motivation

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Department
Human Resources
Course
MHR 405
Professor
David Chalmers
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 5 – Foundations of Employee Motivation LO1 – Employee Engagement Employee engagement – individuals emotional and cognitive motivation, particularly a focused, intense, persistent, and purposive effort toward work-related goals. L02 – Employee Drives and Needs3 Drives – hardwired characteristics of the brain that correct deficiencies or maintain an internal equilibrium by producing emotions to energize individuals. Needs – goal-directed forces that people experience. They are motivational forces of emotions to correct L03- Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy theory Maslow’s needs hierarchy theory a motivation theory of needs arranged in a hierarchy, whereby people are motivated to fulfill a higher need as a lower one becomes granted. The most known theory of motivation. Developed by psychologist Abraham Maslow in the 1940s. Limitations of Maslow’s work ­ People do not progress through the hierarchy as the theory predicts, also there is an issue with how quickly and for how long people fulfill their needs. It failed the reality test but brought a more holistic, humanistic, and positive approach to the study of human motivation. ­ People have different hierarchies and they can change over their lifetime. Holistic perspective – Maslow explained that various needs should be studied together (holistically) bc human behavior is typically initiated by more than one need at a time. Humanistic perspective – introduced the idea that higher order needs are influenced by personal and social influences, not just instincts. First to realize that human thoughts (including self concept, social norms, past experience) play a role in motivation. Positive perspective – popularized the concept of self-actualization, suggesting that ppl are naturally motivated to reach their potential and that organizations and societies need to be structured to help ppl continue and develop this motivation. Positive OB says that focusing on the positive rather than the negative aspects of life will improve organizational success and individual well-being. Learned needs theory Psychologist David McClelland further investigated the idea that individual characteristics influence the strength of higher order needs, such as the need to belong. He recognized that a persons needs can be strengthened through reinforcement, learning, and social conditions. McClelland examined three “learned” needs: achievement, power, affiliation. Need for achievement (nAch) – A need in which ppl want to accomplish reasonably challenging goals, and desire unambiguous feedback and recognition for their success. These ppl prefer working alone rather than in teams and often choose tasks with a moderate degree of risks. Ppl with low nAch perform their work better when money is used as an incentive. Successful entrepreneurs have a high nAch, possibly bc they establish challenging goals for they thrive on competition. Need for affiliation (nAff) – a need in which ppl seek approval from others, conform to their wishes and expectations, and avoid conflict and confrontation. Ppl with strong nAff try to project a favourable image of themselves and tend to actively support others and smooth workplace conflicts. Work well in coordinating roles and are good at maintaining long term relations. Not so good at making decisions that could generate conflict or seeking out scarce resources. Need for power (nPow) – a need in which ppl want to control their environment, incl ppl and material resources, to benefit either themselves (personalized power) or others ( socialized power). Want to exercise control over others and are concerned with maintaining their leadership position. Two types: individuals that enjoy power for their own sake, use it for advanced personal interests, called personalized power. The other: Socialized power, they desire power as a means to help others. Effective leaders should have a high level of socialized power rather than personalized power Four-Drive theory A motivation theory that is based on the innate drives to acquire, bond, learn, and defend, and that incorporates both emotions and rationality. Developed by Harvard school professors Paul Lawrence and Nitin Nohria, the four drive theory states that everyone has the drive to acquire, bond, learn, and defend. Main recommendation from four-drive theory is that individual jobs and workplaces provide a balanced opportunity to fulfill the drives to acquire, bond, learn, and defend. Drive to Acquire – the drive to seek, take control, and retain objects for personal experiences. Goes beyond the basic needs of basic food and water, it includes enhancing ones self-concept through relative status and recognition in society. The foundation of competition and the basis of our need for esteem. The drive to acquire is insatiable, bc the purpose of ones motivation is to achieve a higher position than others, not to just fill ones psychological needs. Drive to bond – the drive to form social relationships and develop mutual caring commitments with others. Explains why ppl form social identities by aligning their self-concept with various social groups. Drive to bond motivates ppl to cooperate and is a fundamental ingredient in the success of an org. and development of societies. Drive to Learn – the drive to satisfy our curiousity, to know and understand ourselves and the environment around us. When observing something that is inconsistent with our or beyond our current knowledge we experience tension that motivates us to close that information gap. The drive to learn is related to the higher-order of needs of growth and self-actual
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