Chapter 5 – Foundations of Employee Motivation
LO1 – Employee Engagement
Employee engagement – individuals emotional and cognitive motivation, particularly a focused,
intense, persistent, and purposive effort toward work-related goals.
L02 – Employee Drives and Needs3
Drives – hardwired characteristics of the brain that correct deficiencies or maintain an internal
equilibrium by producing emotions to energize individuals.
Needs – goal-directed forces that people experience. They are motivational forces of emotions to
L03- Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy theory
Maslow’s needs hierarchy theory
a motivation theory of needs arranged in a hierarchy, whereby people are motivated to fulfill a
higher need as a lower one becomes granted. The most known theory of motivation. Developed
by psychologist Abraham Maslow in the 1940s.
Limitations of Maslow’s work
People do not progress through the hierarchy as the theory predicts, also there is an
issue with how quickly and for how long people fulfill their needs. It failed the reality test
but brought a more holistic, humanistic, and positive approach to the study of human
People have different hierarchies and they can change over their lifetime.
Holistic perspective – Maslow explained that various needs should be studied together
(holistically) bc human behavior is typically initiated by more than one need at a time.
Humanistic perspective – introduced the idea that higher order needs are influenced by personal
and social influences, not just instincts. First to realize that human thoughts (including self
concept, social norms, past experience) play a role in motivation.
Positive perspective – popularized the concept of self-actualization, suggesting that ppl are
naturally motivated to reach their potential and that organizations and societies need to be
structured to help ppl continue and develop this motivation. Positive OB says that focusing on the
positive rather than the negative aspects of life will improve organizational success and individual
Learned needs theory
Psychologist David McClelland further investigated the idea that individual characteristics
influence the strength of higher order needs, such as the need to belong. He recognized that a
persons needs can be strengthened through reinforcement, learning, and social conditions.
McClelland examined three “learned” needs: achievement, power, affiliation.
Need for achievement (nAch) – A need in which ppl want to accomplish reasonably challenging
goals, and desire unambiguous feedback and recognition for their success. These ppl prefer
working alone rather than in teams and often choose tasks with a moderate degree of risks. Ppl
with low nAch perform their work better when money is used as an incentive. Successful
entrepreneurs have a high nAch, possibly bc they establish challenging goals for they thrive on
Need for affiliation (nAff) – a need in which ppl seek approval from others, conform to their wishes
and expectations, and avoid conflict and confrontation. Ppl with strong nAff try to project a
favourable image of themselves and tend to actively support others and smooth workplace
conflicts. Work well in coordinating roles and are good at maintaining long term relations. Not so
good at making decisions that could generate conflict or seeking out scarce resources. Need for power (nPow) – a need in which ppl want to control their environment, incl ppl and
material resources, to benefit either themselves (personalized power) or others ( socialized
power). Want to exercise control over others and are concerned with maintaining their leadership
position. Two types: individuals that enjoy power for their own sake, use it for advanced personal
interests, called personalized power. The other: Socialized power, they desire power as a means
to help others. Effective leaders should have a high level of socialized power rather than
A motivation theory that is based on the innate drives to acquire, bond, learn, and defend, and
that incorporates both emotions and rationality. Developed by Harvard school professors Paul
Lawrence and Nitin Nohria, the four drive theory states that everyone has the drive to acquire,
bond, learn, and defend.
Main recommendation from four-drive theory is that individual jobs and workplaces provide a
balanced opportunity to fulfill the drives to acquire, bond, learn, and defend.
Drive to Acquire – the drive to seek, take control, and retain objects for personal experiences.
Goes beyond the basic needs of basic food and water, it includes enhancing ones self-concept
through relative status and recognition in society. The foundation of competition and the basis of
our need for esteem. The drive to acquire is insatiable, bc the purpose of ones motivation is to
achieve a higher position than others, not to just fill ones psychological needs.
Drive to bond – the drive to form social relationships and develop mutual caring commitments
with others. Explains why ppl form social identities by aligning their self-concept with various
social groups. Drive to bond motivates ppl to cooperate and is a fundamental ingredient in the
success of an org. and development of societies.
Drive to Learn – the drive to satisfy our curiousity, to know and understand ourselves and the
environment around us. When observing something that is inconsistent with our or beyond our
current knowledge we experience tension that motivates us to close that information gap. The
drive to learn is related to the higher-order of needs of growth and self-actual