Organizational Behavior - MHR 405
Amir Ali Golbazi
Motivation at Work
Motivation & Performance
WHAT IS MOTIVATION?
Motivation is the process of arousing and sustaining goal directed behavior. The Internal forces otherwise known as
Intrinsic Motivation are a persons drive to do things out of their interest, a challenge or personal satisfaction.
Extrinsic Motivation is motivation that comes from outside the person, such as pay, tangible rewards or promotion.
Employees Engagement is a state of emotional and intellectual involvement that employees have in their organization.
WHAT IS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MOTIVATION & PERFORMANCE
Engaged workers are usually also motivated at work to perform well under certain conditions. A term often used is
Cyberloaﬁng which is the use of the internet at work for unrelated work content.
Needs & Process Theories of Motivation
Five Need Theories of Motivation
The 5 theories are outlined above.
MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS
The core of this theory lies the Need Hierarchy that states that
people are motivated by ﬁve sets of needs, and that as a lower
need is gratiﬁed, the person becomes motivated by the next need
in the hierarchy. One distinguishing feature of the need hierarchy is
Progression Hypothesis which states the lowest level of
ungratiﬁed need motivates behavior. Finally the notion of Self
Actualization is the realizing of ones full potential.
ALDERFER’S ERG THEORY
This ERG states that people are motivated by
existence, relatedness, and growth needs.
Existence is addressed both physiological and
safety needs relatedness addressed needs for
safety, belongingness and esteem and growth
addressed both self esteem and self
The Frustration Regression Hypothesis
notes also that when people are frustrated their
ability to satisfy a higher order need, the regress
to the next lower need and intensify their desire
to gratify this need.
ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR MHR 405 CHAPTER 4 AMIR ALI GOLBAZI 1 McCLELLAND’S THEORY OF LEARNED
Both the Hierarchy and the ERG theory
based their assumptions on the fact that:
1) Human needs are arranged in a hierarchy
2) All human beings basically have the same
need structure and instinctive.
However McClellland suggested that
1) Do not progress in hierarchical manner,
2) Are learned rather than instinctive and,
3) Vary within each individual’s experiences
McGREOR’S THEIRT X-Y ASSUMPTIONS
Theory X Assumptions about people:
- Naturally indolent
- Lack ambition, dislike responsibility, and prefer to
- Inherently self-centered and indifferent to
- Naturally resistant to change
- Gullible, not bright, ready dupes
Theory Y Assumptions about people:
- Experiences in organizations result in passive and
resistant behaviours; they are not inherent
- Motivation, development potential, capacity for assuming responsibility, readiness to direct behaviour toward
organizational goals are present in people
- Management’s task—arrange conditions and operational methods so people can achieve their own goals by directing
efforts to organizational goals
HERZBERG’S MOTIVATION-HYGIENE THEORY
Conclusions and criticisms about motivation-
• Hygiene factors are of some importance up to a
threshold level, but beyond that there is little value
in improving the hygiene factors. For example, the
extensive beneﬁts programs at described at Home
Depot in the chapter opener can be considered
hygiene factors, and while they do not directly
motivate or create enthusiasm, they prevent
• The presence of motivators is essential to
enhancing employee motivation to excel at work
theories, they have found many cultural
• Research results have not shown a clear
dichotomization of incidents into hygiene and
motivator factors. For example, employees almost equally classify pay as a hygiene factor and as a motivation factor.
ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR MHR 405 CHAPTER 4 AMIR ALI GOLBAZI 2 • Individual differences such as age, sex, social status, education, and occupational level may inﬂuence the classiﬁcation
of factors as motivation or hygiene.
• Almost all of the supporting data for the theory come from a peculiar type of critical incident storytelling technique.
Finally, it is important to mention that most motivation theories in use today have been developed by
Americans about Americans. When researchers have examined the universality of these thoeries, they have
found many cultural differences.
Process of Motivation
This includes four theories which are: Vroom’s expectancy theory, Adam’s equity theory, Organizational justice
theory, and the Goal-setting theory.
EXPECTANCY THEORY OF MOTIVATION
Expectancy Theory: The theory that people
exert effort if they expect that their effort will
result in good performance, and that this
performance will be