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Chapter 4

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Human Resources
MHR 405

Organizational Behavior - MHR 405 Chapter 4 Amir Ali Golbazi Motivation at Work Motivation & Performance WHAT IS MOTIVATION? Motivation is the process of arousing and sustaining goal directed behavior. The Internal forces otherwise known as Intrinsic Motivation are a persons drive to do things out of their interest, a challenge or personal satisfaction. Extrinsic Motivation is motivation that comes from outside the person, such as pay, tangible rewards or promotion. Employees Engagement is a state of emotional and intellectual involvement that employees have in their organization. WHAT IS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MOTIVATION & PERFORMANCE Engaged workers are usually also motivated at work to perform well under certain conditions. A term often used is Cyberloafing which is the use of the internet at work for unrelated work content. Needs & Process Theories of Motivation Five Need Theories of Motivation The 5 theories are outlined above. MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS The core of this theory lies the Need Hierarchy that states that people are motivated by five sets of needs, and that as a lower need is gratified, the person becomes motivated by the next need in the hierarchy. One distinguishing feature of the need hierarchy is Progression Hypothesis which states the lowest level of ungratified need motivates behavior. Finally the notion of Self Actualization is the realizing of ones full potential. ALDERFER’S ERG THEORY This ERG states that people are motivated by existence, relatedness, and growth needs. Existence is addressed both physiological and safety needs relatedness addressed needs for safety, belongingness and esteem and growth addressed both self esteem and self actualization. The Frustration Regression Hypothesis notes also that when people are frustrated their ability to satisfy a higher order need, the regress to the next lower need and intensify their desire to gratify this need. ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR MHR 405 CHAPTER 4 AMIR ALI GOLBAZI 1 McCLELLAND’S THEORY OF LEARNED NEEDS Both the Hierarchy and the ERG theory based their assumptions on the fact that: 1) Human needs are arranged in a hierarchy 2) All human beings basically have the same need structure and instinctive. However McClellland suggested that motivational needs: 1) Do not progress in hierarchical manner, 2) Are learned rather than instinctive and, 3) Vary within each individual’s experiences and personality. McGREOR’S THEIRT X-Y ASSUMPTIONS ABOUT PEOPLE Theory X Assumptions about people: - Naturally indolent - Lack ambition, dislike responsibility, and prefer to be led - Inherently self-centered and indifferent to organizational needs - Naturally resistant to change - Gullible, not bright, ready dupes Theory Y Assumptions about people: - Experiences in organizations result in passive and resistant behaviours; they are not inherent - Motivation, development potential, capacity for assuming responsibility, readiness to direct behaviour toward organizational goals are present in people - Management’s task—arrange conditions and operational methods so people can achieve their own goals by directing efforts to organizational goals HERZBERG’S MOTIVATION-HYGIENE THEORY Conclusions and criticisms about motivation- hygiene: • Hygiene factors are of some importance up to a threshold level, but beyond that there is little value in improving the hygiene factors. For example, the extensive benefits programs at described at Home Depot in the chapter opener can be considered hygiene factors, and while they do not directly motivate or create enthusiasm, they prevent dissatisfaction. • The presence of motivators is essential to enhancing employee motivation to excel at work theories, they have found many cultural differences. • Research results have not shown a clear dichotomization of incidents into hygiene and motivator factors. For example, employees almost equally classify pay as a hygiene factor and as a motivation factor. ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR MHR 405 CHAPTER 4 AMIR ALI GOLBAZI 2 • Individual differences such as age, sex, social status, education, and occupational level may influence the classification of factors as motivation or hygiene. • Almost all of the supporting data for the theory come from a peculiar type of critical incident storytelling technique. Finally, it is important to mention that most motivation theories in use today have been developed by Americans about Americans. When researchers have examined the universality of these thoeries, they have found many cultural differences. Process of Motivation This includes four theories which are: Vroom’s expectancy theory, Adam’s equity theory, Organizational justice theory, and the Goal-setting theory. EXPECTANCY THEORY OF MOTIVATION Expectancy Theory: The theory that people exert effort if they expect that their effort will result in good performance, and that this performance will be
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