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Chapter 1

Chapter 1 MHR.pdf

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Human Resources
Course Code
MHR 405

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Organizational Behavior - MHR 405 Chapter 1 Amir Ali Golbazi Introduction to Organizational Behavior What is O.B.? -Organizational Behavior is a field of study that seeks to understand, explain, predict and change human behavior, both on the individual and collective in the organizational context. -It is an applied Behavioral Science, meaning that the concepts and theories are based on many years of scientific research and it is this research that helps us make better decisions when it comes to managing and influencing people and groups at work. - Human Capital is the knowledge that employees posses and generate, including their skills, experience, and creativity. The goals of OB are to continually grow human capital of organizations by developing talent, synergy, and effectiveness of the people whom work in them. - OB is studied in a few levels; Individual, Group Level, Organization Wide Level, Inter-organizational Level (Network). Roots of Organizational Behavior OB was derived from numerous fields of science. Such include the following: -Psychology: Science of human behavior. Hawthorne Studies: studies conducted at the Hawthorne plant of western electric in the 1920s and 30s that demonstrated the impact of psychological processes and peer pressure on individual behavior, peer pressure, and performance. -Engineering: applied science of energy and matter. A Major breakthrough in this field with respect to OB was done by Frederick Taylor. He profound a term called Scientific Management which is a system for using research to determine the optimum level of specialization and standardization for a particular task. -Sociology is the science of society. It takes society rather than individual as its point at departure. Its main concern is with the various roles in societies and in organizational standpoints groups. It also takes into account the consequences of compliant and defiant behavior within social groups. - Anthropology is the scoence of the learned behavior of human beings. It is especially important to understanding organizational culture. - Management which was originally referred as administrative sciences is a discipline concerned with the study of overseeing activities and supervising people in organizations. This is the first discipline to take the modern corporation as the unit of analysis. Organizational Behavior and Management One of the major focuses of OB is Organizations. These are basically groups of people who work interdependent of one another toward some common purpose. In addition OB recognizes the role of management. This is essentially defined as people in organizations who perform hobs that involve the direct supervision of others. Henry Mintzberg formulated 10 management roles which he also divided into three categories in his publishing called Nature of Managerial Work. There were three categories: Interpersonal, Informational, Decisional. In Interpersonal there are three roles; Figurehead, Liaison (someone who helps others connect), & a Leader. In Informational, the following roles involve the exchange and processing of information such as; Monitoring People, Disseminating Information, & acting as a Spokesperson for the Group. In Decisional, there are four resources; Being Entrepreneurial, Handling Disturbance & Conflict, Negotiating, and Allocating Resources. ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR MHR 405 CHAPTER 1 AMIR ALI GOLBAZI 1 Building on this framework, Cameron & Quinn have constructed the “Competing Values Framework of Organizational Effectiveness” describing leadership and managerial skills. This model captures the fact that managers have to balance responses to two competing realities to successfully complete tasks. The Benefits of Studying Organizational Behavior - OB concepts and skills help managers become more effective, thereby improving their companies. - OB enables you to become more effective at influencing others. - Many of the findings in OB, can also be applied to managing behavior with friend, family and at school. - Obviously is beneficial is OB is your future work. BENEFIT: IMPROVED MANAGERIAL EFFECTIVENESS & BOTTOM LINE (Turnover) - High Performance Work Practices (HPWPs) - Knowledge Skills and Abilities (KSAs) - The formulation of the two improve the bottom line by reducing the costs of employee turnover. BENEFIT: MORE EFFECTIVE INFLUENCE (Productivity) - The material presented in OB helps an individual to better predict, comprehend and even influence the beahvious of others. - This can be handy in the work place as if a manger carries such a position, he/she can push employees to maximum Productivity. - In addition one can anticipate whether a boss or an co-worker is willing to comply to your requests. BENEFIT: A CAREER IN HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT (Adaptability) - Human Resource Management describes the activities, policies, practices involved in obtaining, developing, utilizing, evaluating, maintaining, and reassign the appropriate number of skill mix of employees to accomplish the organization;s objectives. ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR MHR 405 CHAPTER 1 AMIR ALI GOLBAZI 2 An Open Systems Framework for Explaining How Organizations Function -The Open Systems Framework derives from the models of ecosystems in biology, so that organizations are viewed as living organisms, interacting with their environment and requiring balance to survive. This notion itself directly co-relates with the Competing Values Framework. Components of the Open Systems Framework 1) The external task environment in which the organization operates that is the forces outside the organizations. 2) The inputs to the organization to the organization. 3) The internal organization itself, that is inside the organization, referred to as the GHOST model (Goals, Human Resources, Organizational Structure, & Technology). 4) The outputs created by the organization, and finally. 5) The feedback processes. EXTERNAL TASK ENVIRONMENT -An External Task Environment includes those sectors or forces with which the organization interacts directly and/ or that have a direct impact on the organization’s ability to achieve its goals. - Most managers tend to focus inwardly, organizations frequently create formal jobs, and even entire departments, in order to keep track of or influence the outside external task environment forces that may present challenges. - Boundary Spanning Roles are defined as those that link and coordinate an organization with key elements in the task environment. Ex; Boundary spanning roles are market researchers, government lobbyist, and competitive intelligence departments. ORGANIZATIONAL INPUTS - From the external task environment, organizations take the human, informational, material, and financial resources that they need to create their product or deliver their services. These are called the Organizational Input. THE GHOST MODEL FOR THE INTERNAL ORGANIZATION Goals - Action strategies that leaders create and follow to accomplish the organization’s purpose bad vision. - Leaders create goals on the basis of the organizations reason for being, its business strategy, and to combat the threats and use the opportunities which exist in the external task environment. - Goals must be continually reviewed and adjusted. Human Resources - This is the individual characteristics and preferences of employees and managers, the nature of their interpersonal relationships, and the impact of the reward system on their behavior. - Individual Characteristics Includes attitudes, values, perceptions, personalities, creativity, & decision making. ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR MHR 405 CHAPTER 1 AMIR ALI GOLBAZI 3 - Interpersonal Relationships are motivation, communication, team dynamics, power & influence, leadership, conflict management, organizational structure, and change. - The reward system includes both monetary and non monetary rewards, feedback, praise and recognition. Organizational Structure - The manner in which the jobs in the organization are designed, as well as how different parts f the organization are divided up and coordinated. - The design of jobs has a big impact in the workforce, it governs how inputs will turn into outputs. - As an organization grows, management also have to decide how to differentiate the units and divisions and also how to coordinate them into common goals. - One way this can be done is by dividing an organization into cross-functional Teams. Technology - Wide range of tools, knowledge, information technology, work process, and techniques used to transform inputs to outputs. - Technology essentially means the process needed to transform inputs into outputs. ORGANIZATIONAL OUTPUTS Organizational outputs include products and services as well as the more intangible outputs such as reputation, image and ideas. - Outputs can be identified at the organizational, team, and individual levels. -Team Level outputs include team performance or team reject rates. - Individual outputs include absenteeism (the practice of regularly staying away from work or school without good reason) and sales per month. FEEDBACK PROCESSES Feedback is any information that people or orga
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