Organizational Behavior - MHR 405
Amir Ali Golbazi
Introduction to Organizational Behavior
What is O.B.?
-Organizational Behavior is a ﬁeld of study that seeks to understand, explain, predict and change human behavior,
both on the individual and collective in the organizational context.
-It is an applied Behavioral Science, meaning that the concepts and theories are based on many years of scientiﬁc
research and it is this research that helps us make better decisions when it comes to managing and inﬂuencing people
and groups at work.
- Human Capital is the knowledge that employees posses and generate, including their skills, experience, and creativity.
The goals of OB are to continually grow human capital of organizations by developing talent, synergy, and effectiveness
of the people whom work in them.
- OB is studied in a few levels; Individual, Group Level, Organization Wide Level, Inter-organizational Level (Network).
Roots of Organizational Behavior
OB was derived from numerous ﬁelds of science. Such include the following:
-Psychology: Science of human behavior.
Hawthorne Studies: studies conducted at the Hawthorne plant of western electric in the 1920s and 30s that
demonstrated the impact of psychological processes and peer pressure on individual behavior, peer pressure, and
-Engineering: applied science of energy and matter.
A Major breakthrough in this ﬁeld with respect to OB was done by Frederick Taylor. He profound a term called
Scientiﬁc Management which is a system for using research to determine the optimum level of specialization and
standardization for a particular task.
-Sociology is the science of society. It takes society rather than individual as its point at departure. Its main concern
is with the various roles in societies and in organizational standpoints groups. It also takes into account the
consequences of compliant and deﬁant behavior within social groups.
- Anthropology is the scoence of the learned behavior of human beings. It is especially important to understanding
- Management which was originally referred as administrative sciences is a discipline concerned with the study of
overseeing activities and supervising people in organizations. This is the ﬁrst discipline to take the modern
corporation as the unit of analysis.
Organizational Behavior and Management
One of the major focuses of OB is Organizations. These are basically groups of people who work interdependent of
one another toward some common purpose. In addition OB recognizes the role of management. This is essentially
deﬁned as people in organizations who perform hobs that involve the direct supervision of others.
Henry Mintzberg formulated 10 management roles which he also divided into three categories in his publishing
called Nature of Managerial Work.
There were three categories: Interpersonal, Informational, Decisional.
In Interpersonal there are three roles; Figurehead, Liaison (someone who helps others connect), & a Leader.
In Informational, the following roles involve the exchange and processing of information such as; Monitoring People,
Disseminating Information, & acting as a Spokesperson for the Group.
In Decisional, there are four resources; Being Entrepreneurial, Handling Disturbance & Conﬂict, Negotiating, and
ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR MHR 405 CHAPTER 1 AMIR ALI GOLBAZI 1 Building on this framework, Cameron & Quinn have constructed the “Competing Values Framework of
Organizational Effectiveness” describing leadership and managerial skills. This model captures the fact that managers
have to balance responses to two competing realities to successfully complete tasks.
The Beneﬁts of Studying Organizational Behavior
- OB concepts and skills help managers become more effective, thereby improving their companies.
- OB enables you to become more effective at inﬂuencing others.
- Many of the ﬁndings in OB, can also be applied to managing behavior with friend, family and at school.
- Obviously is beneﬁcial is OB is your future work.
BENEFIT: IMPROVED MANAGERIAL EFFECTIVENESS & BOTTOM LINE (Turnover)
- High Performance Work Practices (HPWPs)
- Knowledge Skills and Abilities (KSAs)
- The formulation of the two improve the bottom line by reducing the costs of employee turnover.
BENEFIT: MORE EFFECTIVE INFLUENCE (Productivity)
- The material presented in OB helps an individual to better predict, comprehend and even inﬂuence the beahvious of
- This can be handy in the work place as if a manger carries such a position, he/she can push employees to
- In addition one can anticipate whether a boss or an co-worker is willing to comply to your requests.
BENEFIT: A CAREER IN HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT (Adaptability)
- Human Resource Management describes the activities, policies, practices involved in obtaining, developing,
utilizing, evaluating, maintaining, and reassign the appropriate number of skill mix of employees to accomplish the
ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR MHR 405 CHAPTER 1 AMIR ALI GOLBAZI 2 An Open Systems Framework for Explaining How Organizations Function
-The Open Systems Framework derives from the models of ecosystems in biology, so that organizations are
viewed as living organisms, interacting with their environment and requiring balance to survive. This notion itself
directly co-relates with the Competing Values Framework.
Components of the Open Systems Framework
1) The external task environment in which the organization
operates that is the forces outside the organizations.
2) The inputs to the organization to the organization.
3) The internal organization itself, that is inside the
organization, referred to as the GHOST model (Goals,
Human Resources, Organizational Structure, &
4) The outputs created by the organization, and ﬁnally.
5) The feedback processes.
EXTERNAL TASK ENVIRONMENT
-An External Task Environment includes those sectors or forces with which the organization interacts directly and/
or that have a direct impact on the organization’s ability to achieve its goals.
- Most managers tend to focus inwardly, organizations frequently create formal jobs, and even entire departments, in
order to keep track of or inﬂuence the outside external task environment forces that may present challenges.
- Boundary Spanning Roles are deﬁned as those that link and coordinate an organization with key elements in the
task environment. Ex; Boundary spanning roles are market researchers, government lobbyist, and competitive
- From the external task environment, organizations take the human, informational, material, and ﬁnancial resources
that they need to create their product or deliver their services. These are called the Organizational Input.
THE GHOST MODEL FOR THE INTERNAL ORGANIZATION
- Action strategies that leaders create and
follow to accomplish the organization’s
purpose bad vision.
- Leaders create goals on the basis of the
organizations reason for being, its business
strategy, and to combat the threats and
use the opportunities which exist in the
external task environment.
- Goals must be continually reviewed and
- This is the individual characteristics and
preferences of employees and managers,
the nature of their interpersonal
relationships, and the impact of the reward
system on their behavior.
- Individual Characteristics Includes
attitudes, values, perceptions, personalities, creativity, & decision making.
ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR MHR 405 CHAPTER 1 AMIR ALI GOLBAZI 3 - Interpersonal Relationships are motivation, communication, team dynamics, power & inﬂuence, leadership, conﬂict
management, organizational structure, and change.
- The reward system includes both monetary and non monetary rewards, feedback, praise and recognition.
- The manner in which the jobs in the organization are designed, as well as how different parts f the organization are
divided up and coordinated.
- The design of jobs has a big impact in the workforce, it governs how inputs will turn into outputs.
- As an organization grows, management also have to decide how to differentiate the units and divisions and also
how to coordinate them into common goals.
- One way this can be done is by dividing an organization into cross-functional Teams.
- Wide range of tools, knowledge, information technology, work process, and techniques used to transform inputs to
- Technology essentially means the process needed to transform inputs into outputs.
Organizational outputs include products and services as well as the more intangible outputs such as reputation,
image and ideas.
- Outputs can be identiﬁed at the organizational, team, and individual levels.
-Team Level outputs include team performance or team reject rates.
- Individual outputs include absenteeism (the practice of regularly staying away from work or school without good
reason) and sales per month.
Feedback is any information that people or orga