Organizational Behavior - MHR 405
Amir Ali Golbazi
Creating a Positive Work Environment: Attitudes, Values, Ethics
Why is it Important to Create a Positive Work Environment?
Organizational Sustainability is not just about proﬁts but also about the organization’s responsibility to the community
in which it operates, to its people who they employ and how the organization interacts from an ethical and moral
- Such employers are known as High Performing Organizations. These are organizations which produce extraordinary
results and sustain this performance over changing market conditions. They also adapt industry best practices while
incorporating their own unique processes and they view failures as opportunities for learning.
- They also develop faster than their competition and maintain a higher rate of satisfaction for their stakeholders.They also
treat their employees with respect and dignity and are aware of social responsibility and
often act as role models for their industry of trade.
- These companies adopt a Triple-Bottom-Line attitude. This essentially means that the
corporate citizen understands and cares about the impact of operations on the
environment, people and community. This is simply a baseline for measuring performance,
adding social value and environmental dimensions o the traditional monetary benchmark.
- High Value in Employee Currency.
- They also employ individuals whom utilize the Best Practice Methods which is the
processes, and practices and systems that an organization does particularly well and that
are widely recognized as improving the organization’s performance and efﬁciency.
- The task of management in this case is to ﬁnd these best practice methods and adapt
them into the industry. This is known as bring the outside in while keeping their signature
What does a Positive Work Environment Look Like?
There are Three critical elements that organizations must consider when trying to create and sustain a positive work
environment. Successful organizations pay close attention to these factors and try to incorporate and attend to them as
much as possible.
High performing organizational clearly set out who
they are, what their values are and where they are
headed. In addition they also have employees who
can help them get there.
- Culture is strong, adaptive and appropriate to the goals of the entity.
- Leaders are inﬂuential, positive, and motivating.
- Communication is open and supports knowledge management,
Problem solving, and coordination of work.
- Decision making is ethical, all policies, procedures, or practices are designed
In accordance to the organization’s goals.
COMPONENTS OF A JOB
Most of us would like to do a “Good Job”, but often when roles, responsibilities, and accountabilities are not clear we fail
to attain this goal.
- Organizations with positive work environment clearly depict the purpose of the job and how the job contributes the the
success of the organization.
- In addition they outline how an individual can contribute to that success.
- As well they create jobs which effectively satisfy these attributes of a successful organization.
UNDERSTANDING INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES
Organizations need to comprehend that there are dissimilarities in employees and use them as leverages in their
- These differences include various values, attitudes, personalities and perceptions on emotional and ethical levels.
- It is very important to try and understand what motivates an individual in the workplace. This is the key to success.
ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR MHR 405 CHAPTER 2 AMIR ALI GOLBAZI 1 Values
Values are Enduring beliefs that a speciﬁc mode of conduct or end state of existence is personally or socially preferable to
an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end state of existence.
- Values guide behavior by providing criteria in which an individual can use to deﬁne happenings and actions in the
- These are learned throughout our lives and differ greatly between individuals.
INSTRUMENTAL & TERMINAL VALUES
Milton Rokeach, distinguished two types of values: Instrumental & Terminal Values.
Instrumental Values: are values which represent the accepted behavior in achieving a certain goal or end state. They
include such characteristics as ambition, honesty, responsibility and independence.
Terminal Values: are in contrast the goals which are to be achieved or the end state of existence. They include such
things as love, happiness, pleasure, self respect, equality and freedom.
- The two values work together to instigate and maintain roles and goals for individuals and for them to achieve it in a
FACTORS THAN INFLUENCE VALUES
Individual vary widely in their value systems. Various generations also are motivated to work for different reasons. Consider
Traditionalists are loyal to their job, respect authority, and
get the job done.
Baby Boomers challenge authority, prefer to work in ﬂat
organizations with a lot of teamwork and have a “Live to
Generation X loves intellectually stimulating work and
value learning, advancement, respect competence and
skills over seniority, and work in environment where
eduction is emphasized as much as continuos learning.
Generation Y demonstrates a “Work to Contribute”
mentality, preferring to engage in casual relationships
with managers and expecting immediate payoffs for a
job well done.
CULTURAL DIFFERENCE IN VALUES
CROSS CULTURAL STUDIES: ANALYZING DIFFERENCES ACROSS CULTURES
There have been two signiﬁcant studies which contribute to the understanding of cultures and their value systems:
GLOBE Study & the work of Geert Hofstede.
- GLOBE is abbreviation for Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness Research Project. It examined
the interrelationships between societal culture, organization culture, and organizational leadership.
- They illustrated Nine dimensions of culture: (1) Assertiveness, (2) Future Orientation, (3) Gender Equalitarianism, (4)
Uncertainty Avoidance, (5) Power Distance, (6) Institutional emphasis on Collectivism VS Individualism, (7) In-Group
Collectivism, (8) Performance Orientation, (9) Humane Orientation.
- Hofstede on the other hand came up with 5 dimensions analyzing cross cultural differences: (1) Power Distance, (2) Individualism Vs
Collectivism, (3) Masculinity VS Femininity, (4) Uncertainty Avoidance, (5) Long VS Short term orientation.
- Here is the relationship between the two theories:
This is the degree of inequality among people
that the population considers normal, from
relatively equal (Small Power Distance) to very
different (Large Power Distance).
- Creating a hierarchy of command (High Power
Cultures) results in undue stress and create a
more positive working environment.
- H I G H : R u s s i a , S p a i n , T h a i l a n d