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Chapter 4

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Human Resources
MHR 405
Frank Miller

Chapter 4 – Motivation at Work Motivation and Performance What is Motivation? - Motivation: the process or arousing and sustaining goal-directed behaviour o Latin word “movere” which means “to move” - Job satisfaction: a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experience - Intrinsic motivation: a person’s internal drive to do something because of interest, challenge, or personal satisfaction - Extrinsic motivation: motivation that comes from outside the person, such as pay, tangible rewards, or a promotion - Employee engagement: a state of emotional and intellectual involvement that employees have in their organization What is the Relationship between Motivation and Performance - Research indicates a positive relationship between satisfied, engaged workers and organizational performance - Cyber loafing: employees surging the internet when they should be working - Poor performance is not always due to poor motivation Five Need Theories of Motivation - Need theories of work motivation all try to answer the question: “What motivates you at work?” 1. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs - Need hierarchy: Maslow’s theory that people are motivated by five sets of needs, and that as a lower need is gratified, the person becomes motivated by the next need in the hierarchy - Consist of: physiological, safety, belongingness, esteem needs, and the need for self-actualization - Distinguished feather of Maslow’s need hierarchy is the progression hypothesis: the lowest level of ungratified need motivates behaviour - Self-actualization: the realization of one’s full potential - Effective organizations help employees self-actualize by supporting their career development, assigning challenging assignments, and giving them transfers and promotions 2. Alderfer’s ERG Theory - Clatyon Alderfer recognized the value of Maslow’s contribution to understanding motivation but believed that the original need hierarchy was not quite accurate - ERG theory: Alderfer’s theory that people are motivated by existence (E), relatedness (R), and growth (G) needs, and that as a lower need is gratified the person becomes motivated by the next need in the hierarchy - Frustration regression hypothesis: the theory that when people are frustrated in their ability to satisfy a higher-order need, they regress to the next lower need and intensify their desire to gratify this need 3. McClelland’s Theory of Learned Needs: Achievement, Power and Affiliation - Both the hierarchy of needs and ERG theory assume that 1. Human needs are arranged in a hierarchy 2. All human beings have basically the same need structure and are instinctive- - David McClelland’s theory of learned needs suggests that motivational needs 1. Do not progress in a hierarchical manner 2. Are learned rather than innate 3. Vary with an individual’s experiences and personality - McClelland’s research suggested three important learned needs that he called achievement, power, and affiliation o Need for achievement: an individual’s need for excellence, competition, challenging goals and feedback o Need for power: an individual’s need to influence others and make a difference in life o Need for affiliation: an individual’s need to establish and maintain warm, close relationships with other people 4. McGregor’s Theory X-Y Assumptions about People - 1950, Douglas McGregor build upon the idea of lower and higher-order human needs - Theory X: a set of assumptions about how to manage individuals who are motivated by lower-order needs o Managers with bias toward theory X tend to believe that people are by nature are lazy, lack ambition, dislike responsibility, and prefer to be led o Believe that people are by nature self-centered, resistant to change, gullible, and not very bright o They try to motivate employees by meeting their lower-level physiological, safety, or security needs - Theory Y: a set of assumptions of how to manage individuals who are motivated by higher-order needs o Managers with bias toward theory Y tend to believe that people are naturally motivated by higher-order needs o Believe that people are naturally motivated, and have the potential for development, the capacity for assuming responsibility, and the readiness to pursue organizational goals 5. Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory - Fredrick Herzberg’s motivation-hygiene theory explores the differences between satisfaction and dissatisfaction at work rather than seeking to define universal or individual motives - Motivators: intrinsic factors in the job that lead to satisfaction, such as achievement and the work itself - Hygiene factors: extrinsic factors surrounding the job that lead to dissatisfaction, such as company policies and pay - Motivators and hygiene factors are independent of each other - Job enrichment: designing or redesigning jobs by incorporating motivational factors into them Process Theories of Motivation - Explore Vrooom’s expectancy theory, Adam’s equity theory, organizational justice theory, and goal-setting theory Expectancy Theory of Motivation - Victor Vroom, a Canadian OB scholar created expectancy theory in the mid- 1960s - Expectancy theory: the theory that people exert effort if they expect that their effort will result in good performance, and that this performance will be in
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