Chapter 2: Job Analysis and Design
Job analysis: systematic study of a job to discover its specifications, skill requirements, etc. for
wage-setting, recruitment, training or job-simplification purposes
Job: consists of a group of related activities and duties.
o May be held by a single employee or several persons
o If jobs are not well designed and done well, productivity suffers, profits fall, and the
organization is less able to meet the demands of society, customers, employees and
Position: The collection of tasks and responsibilities performed by an individual employee.
Human resource information system (HRIS) permits easy retrieval of relevant job details; it also
provides a variety of information about the job, jobholders, and past performance standards.
Steps in the Job Analysis Process
Phase 1: Preparation of Job Analysis
Step 1: Familiarization with the Organization and its Job
Have an awareness of an organization's objectives, strategies, structure, inputs (people,
materials, and procedures), and desired outcomes
Job analysis procedures are influenced by the organizations character
Step 2: Determine users of the Job Analysis
Most common uses are in the selection process, training, and designing performance appraisal
and compensation systems
Step 3: Identify jobs to be analyzed
Likely targets of job analysis are jobs that are critical to the success of an organization; jobs that
are difficult to learn or perform (determine extent of training); jobs in which the firm continuously hires new employees (identification of clear job requirements assumes great
importance) ;or jobs that exclude members of the protected classes
New technology or altered work environments affect how the job is performed.
Phase 2: Collection of Job Analysis Information
Step 4: Determine source of Job Data
Step 5: Data Collection Instrument Design
Job analysis schedules: Checklists that seek to collect information about jobs in a uniform
o They uncover the duties, responsibilities, human abilities, and performance standards of
the jobs investigated.
o Use the same questionnaire on similar jobs
Most standardized forms attempt to measure the following items:
o Status and identification: status refers to whether the job is released from overtime
laws. Other identification information includes job title, division, and title of
supervisor(s), and sometimes a unique job identification number. (Figure 2-4)
o Duties and responsibilities: The specific duties and responsibilities are listed to give
more detailed insight into the position.
o Human Characteristics and working conditions: analysts need to uncover the particular
skills, abilities, training, education, experience, and other characteristics that jobholders
need. Working conditions may explain the need for particular skills, training, knowledge,
or even a particular job design
o Performance Standards: What is expected
o Functional Job Analysis (FJA): FJA classifies tasks using three functional scales related to
data, people, and things. Functional scale ranks behaviours according to complexity. For example, the lowest level in the people scale is "taking instruction," while the highest is
o Occupational Information Network (O’NET): new O*NET lists only 1000 occupations,
compared to 12 000 used by DOT (Dictionary of Occupational Titles)
o Fleishman Job Analysis System (F-JAS): used in the US market. The actual scales use a
seven-point anchor indicating the different levels of abilities.
o Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ): Designed to apply to all types of jobs, offers an
even more quantitative and finely tuned description of jobs than the F-JAS.
o Critical Incident Method (CIM): Duties and responsibilities are important aspects of a
job analysis, and the CIM is ideally suited for this purpose because it focuses on critical
Step 6: Choice of