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Chapter 4

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Ryerson University
Human Resources
MHR 523
Elizabeth Carlson

Chapter 4  Motivation: the process of arousing and sustaining goal directed behaviour  Job satisfaction: a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experiences  Intrinisic motivation: a person’s internal drive to do something because of interest, challenge, or personal satisfaction  Extrinsic motivation: motivation that comes from outside the person, such as pay, tangible rewards, or a promotion  Employee engagement: a state of emotional and intellectual involvement that employees have in their organization  Cyberloafing: employees surfing the internet when they should be working  Research indicates a positive relationship between satisfies engaged workers, and organizational performance  23% of Canadians are engaged at work, as against 21% globally  What motivates someone: Need theories of motivation: maslow’s hierarchy of needs, McGregor’s X-Y theory, Alderfer’s ERG theory, McClelland’s theory of leaned needs, Hezberg’s motivation hygiene theory.  How is a person motivated: Process theories of motivation: Vroom’s expectancy theory, adam’s equity theory and organizational justice, goal setting theory, behaviour modification  Maslow’s hierarchy of needs: consists of psychological, safety, belongingness, esteem needs, and the need for self actualization. People are motivated by 5 sets of needs and as a lower need is gratified the person becomes motivated by the next need in the hierarchy. The lowest level of ungratified needs motivates behaviour. Self actualization is the realization of one’s full potential. A study revealed that opportunity to use abilities was rated highest by Canadians while money was ranked fourth.  Alderfer’s ERG theory: people are motivated by existence (psychological and safety needs), relatedness (safety, belongingness, and esteem needs), growth (self esteem and self actualization). Frustration regression hypothesis when people are frustrated in their ability to satisfy a higher order need, they regress to the next lower need and intensify their desire to gratify this need.  Both theories believe that needs are arranged in a hierarch and that all human beings have basically the same need structure and are instinctive.  McClelland’s theory of learned needs: do not progress in hierarchy manner, are learned rather than innate, and vary with an individual’s experiences and personality. Need for achievement in an individual’s need for excellence, competition, challenging goals and feedback (successful entrepreneurs tend to score high on their needs for achievement and its relatively constant across cultures). Need for power is an individual’s need to influence others and make a difference in life (in his research the best managers had a very high need for socialized power). Need for affiliation is an individual’s need to establish and maintain warm, close relationships with other people (more effective managers had lower needs for affiliation).  McGregor’s theory X-Y assumptions about people: lower and higher order human needs based on stereotyping and selective perception. Theory X is a set of assumptions about how to manage individuals who are motivated by lower order needs. Theory Y a set of assumptions about how to manage individuals who are motivated by higher order needs (managers assign challenging tasks, empower employees, and provide recognition).  Herzberg’s motivation hygiene theory: motivators are intrinsic factors in the job that lead to satisfaction, such as achievement and the work itself. Hygiene factors are intrinsic factors surrounding the job that lead to dissatisfaction, such as company policies and pay. Motivators are more important than hygiene factors. Job enrichment id designing or redesigning jobs by incorporating motivational factors into them. Criticism: no clear dichotomization of incidents into hygiene and motivator factors, individual differences, almost all of the supporting data comes from a peculiar type of critical incident storytelling technique. Most motivation theories in use today have been developed by Americans about Americans.  Expectancy theory of motivation: the theory that people exert effort if they expect that their effort will result in a good performance, and that this performance will be instrumental in getting them valued outcomes. Expectancy is the belief that effort leads to performance, this relationship varies from person to person and from activity to activity. Self efficiency is an individual’s beliefs and expectations about his or her ability
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