Motivation: the process of arousing and sustaining goal directed behaviour
Job satisfaction: a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s
job or job experiences
Intrinisic motivation: a person’s internal drive to do something because of interest, challenge, or
Extrinsic motivation: motivation that comes from outside the person, such as pay, tangible
rewards, or a promotion
Employee engagement: a state of emotional and intellectual involvement that employees have
in their organization
Cyberloafing: employees surfing the internet when they should be working
Research indicates a positive relationship between satisfies engaged workers, and organizational
23% of Canadians are engaged at work, as against 21% globally
What motivates someone: Need theories of motivation: maslow’s hierarchy of needs,
McGregor’s X-Y theory, Alderfer’s ERG theory, McClelland’s theory of leaned needs, Hezberg’s
motivation hygiene theory.
How is a person motivated: Process theories of motivation: Vroom’s expectancy theory, adam’s
equity theory and organizational justice, goal setting theory, behaviour modification
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs: consists of psychological, safety, belongingness, esteem needs,
and the need for self actualization. People are motivated by 5 sets of needs and as a lower need
is gratified the person becomes motivated by the next need in the hierarchy. The lowest level of
ungratified needs motivates behaviour. Self actualization is the realization of one’s full potential.
A study revealed that opportunity to use abilities was rated highest by Canadians while money
was ranked fourth.
Alderfer’s ERG theory: people are motivated by existence (psychological and safety needs),
relatedness (safety, belongingness, and esteem needs), growth (self esteem and self
actualization). Frustration regression hypothesis when people are frustrated in their ability to
satisfy a higher order need, they regress to the next lower need and intensify their desire to
gratify this need.
Both theories believe that needs are arranged in a hierarch and that all human beings have
basically the same need structure and are instinctive.
McClelland’s theory of learned needs: do not progress in hierarchy manner, are learned rather
than innate, and vary with an individual’s experiences and personality. Need for achievement in
an individual’s need for excellence, competition, challenging goals and feedback (successful
entrepreneurs tend to score high on their needs for achievement and its relatively constant
across cultures). Need for power is an individual’s need to influence others and make a
difference in life (in his research the best managers had a very high need for socialized power).
Need for affiliation is an individual’s need to establish and maintain warm, close relationships
with other people (more effective managers had lower needs for affiliation). McGregor’s theory X-Y assumptions about people: lower and higher order human needs based
on stereotyping and selective perception. Theory X is a set of assumptions about how to manage
individuals who are motivated by lower order needs. Theory Y a set of assumptions about how
to manage individuals who are motivated by higher order needs (managers assign challenging
tasks, empower employees, and provide recognition).
Herzberg’s motivation hygiene theory: motivators are intrinsic factors in the job that lead to
satisfaction, such as achievement and the work itself. Hygiene factors are intrinsic factors
surrounding the job that lead to dissatisfaction, such as company policies and pay. Motivators
are more important than hygiene factors. Job enrichment id designing or redesigning jobs by
incorporating motivational factors into them. Criticism: no clear dichotomization of incidents
into hygiene and motivator factors, individual differences, almost all of the supporting data
comes from a peculiar type of critical incident storytelling technique. Most motivation theories
in use today have been developed by Americans about Americans.
Expectancy theory of motivation: the theory that people exert effort if they expect that their
effort will result in a good performance, and that this performance will be instrumental in
getting them valued outcomes. Expectancy is the belief that effort leads to performance, this
relationship varies from person to person and from activity to activity. Self efficiency is an
individual’s beliefs and expectations about his or her ability