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Chapter 4

Chapter 4 – Designing and Analyzing Jobs.docx

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Ryerson University
Human Resources
MHR 523
Pat Sniderman

Chapter 4 – Designing and Analyzing Jobs Organizing Work for Strategic Success - Organization consists of one or more employees who perform various tasks - Organizational structure: the formal relationships among jobs in an organization - Organization chart: a “snapshot” of the firm, depicting the organization’s structure in chart form at a particular point in time - Designing an organization involves choosing a structure that is appropriate given the company’s strategic goals - Bureaucratic Structure: (p.85) o Top-down management approach o Many levels and hierarchical communication channels and career paths o Highlight specialized jobs with narrowly defined job descriptions o Focus on independent performance - Flat Structure: o Decentralized management approach o Few levels and multi-directional communication o Broadly defined jobs with general job descriptions o Emphasis on teams and on product development - Matric Structure: o Each job has two components: functional and product o Finance personnel for product B are responsible to both the finance executive and the product B executive Job Design - the process of systematically organizing work into tasks that are required to perform a specific job - Job: a group of related activities and duties, held by a single employee or a number of incumbents - Position: the collection of tasks and responsibilities performed by one person - Job Specialization (industrial Engineering) o Machine power for people power became more widespread, experts wrote about the positive correlation between 1) job specialization and 2) productivity and efficiency o Work simplification: an approach to job design that involves assigning most of the administrative aspects of work (such as planning and organizing) to supervisors and managers, while giving lower-level employees narrowly defined tasks to perform according to methods established and specified by management o Industrial Engineering: a field of study concerned with analyzing work methods; making work cycles more efficient by modifying, combining, rearranging, or eliminating tasks and establishing time standards - Behavioral Aspects of Job Design o Job enlargement (horizontal loading): a technique to relieve monotony and boredom that involves assigning workers additional tasks at the same level of responsibility to increase the number of tasks they have to perform o Job rotation: another technique to relieve monotony and employee boredom that involves systematically moving employees from one job to another o Job enrichment (vertical loading): any effort that makes an employee’s job more rewarding or satisfying by adding more meaningful tasks and duties  Increasing level of difficulty  Assigning more authority  New tasks, etc o Team-Based Job Designs:  Job designs that focus on giving a team, rather than an individual a whole and meaningful piece of work to do and empowering team members to decide among themselves how to accomplish the work  Team: a small group of people, with complementary skills, who work toward common goals for which they hold joint responsibility and accountability - Ergonomic Aspects of Job Design o Ergonomics: an interdisciplinary approach that seeks to integrate and accommodate the physical needs of workers into the design of jobs. It aims to adapt the entire job system – the work, environment, machines, equipment, and processes – to match human characteristics - Increasing Job Flexibility o Companies are grappling with challenges such as rapid product and technological change, global competition, deregulation, political instability, demographic changes, and a shift to a service economy o Increased the need for firms to be responsive, flexible, and much more competitive The Nature of Job Analysis - Job Analysis: the procedure for determining the tasks, duties, and responsibilities of each job, and the human attributes (in terms of knowledge, skills, and abilities) required to perform it - Uses of Job Analysis Information: o Human Resources Planning  For future staffing  Can determine which jobs can be filled internally which require external recruitment o Recruitment and Selection  To decide what sort of person to recruit and hire  Identify bona fide occupational requirements  Ensuring all activities related to recruitment and selection are based on these requirements o Compensation  To determine appropriate compensation and justify pay differences  Determine whether a job qualifies for overtime pay and max hours purposes o Performance Appraisal  Determine performance standards o Labour Relations  To classify jobs and bargain over wages, performance criteria, working conditions o Training, Development, and Career Management  To determine gaps that require training programs  Can prepare for future advancement o Job Design  Ensuring that all of the duties having to be done have actually been assigned and for identifying areas of overlap  Identify unnecessary requirements, areas of conflict or dissatisfaction, and/or health and safety concerns Steps in Job Analysis 1. identify the use to which the info
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