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Canada (161,369)
MHR 849 (14)
Chapter 4

Chapter 4

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Human Resources
MHR 849
Rupa Banerjee

Chapter 4: Job Analysis - Job: a grouping of related duties, tasks and behaviors performed by one or more individuals, namely jobholders - Position: the number of individuals who are performing the duties, tasks and behaviours required by a specific job - Job analysis: the analysis of subdivided work in the organization, both at the level of the individual job and for the entire flow of the production process Job Analysis - Job description (job specification) the written outcomes (documents) produced by the job analysis process o The job description emphasizes the duties or tasks to be carried out on the job o Job specifications emphasize identifying the competencies the jobholder must possess to be a successful performer in the specified job - Knowledge: body of information, usually of a factual or procedural nature, that allows an individual to perform a task successfully - Skill: individual’s level of proficiency or competency in performing a specific task. Level of competency is typically expressed in numerical terms - Ability: more general, enduring trait or capability in individual possesses at the time when he or she first begins to perform a task - Other attributes: including work experience - Compensable factors: knowledge and skills, effort, responsibility and working conditions - Scientific management: examines two main aspects of each job in the organization: 1. The methods employed – how job incumbent performs the job with minimum requirements for success in the job a. The individual’s knowledge of production techniques and processes (eg. Raw material and other inputs, machinery, tools), cognitive (mental) abilities, mechanical abilities (eg. Principles and spatial relationships), and psychomotor abilities b. The working conditions in which the job is performed (eg. Whether the work is done by the individual alone or in conjunction with other members of a team) 2. The time measurement for task completion – cycle/ production time required to produce the good or service to the performance standards of the organization - The nature of job analysis o procedure for determining tasks, duties and responsibilities of each job (to create job description) o the human attributes (knowledge, skills, abilities) required to perform it (to create job specification) Job Analysis and HR Planning - Job analysis ensures that recent changes have been incorporated into job descriptions and specifications - Changes in technology can affect how work is organized, and core activities - HR functions due to globalization are similar and different around the world - High-performing managers are developed with in-house training academies and talent schools Problems Associated with Job Analysis 1. Job analysis that is neither updated nor reviewed – recent changes in technology, materials and processes must be incorporated into the amended job description or specification 2. Job description or specification that is too vague – produce detailed, specific behavioural examples of successful job performance for each job in the work process 3. Contamination and deficiency - Deficiency: an error of omission when a job description or specification fails to incorporate important aspects of the job required for success - Contamination: an error that occurs when unimportant or invalid behaviours or attributes are incorporated into a job description or specification 4. Time and costs of job analysis – many organizations bemoan large time and cost expenditures associated with job analysis because they have not conducted proper cost-benefit analysis - Organizations should also consider the time and cost savings that results from the following: o Better matching of individual skills to organizational requirements o Incorporation of the benefits of organizational learning with respect to product and process improvements o Reduced job ambiguity and wastage o Clarification of operating procedures and job relationships o Explicit definition of performance expectations for individuals and teams o Facilitation of other HR programs Job Descriptions and Human Rights Legislation - job descriptions are not legally required but are highly advisable - essential job duties should be clearly identified in the job description - the only criteria examined should be knowledge, skills, and abilities required for the essential duties of the job - when an employee cannot perform one or more of the essential duties because of reasons related to a prohibited ground, such as a physical disability or religion, reasonable accommodation to the point of undue hardship is required Job Specifications and Human Rights Legislation - “What human traits and experience are required to do this job?” - Complying with human rights legislation: - all listed qualifications are bona fide occupational requirements (BFORs), based on the current job duties and responsibilities - certain educational and/or experience requirements can lead to systemic discrimination eg. Canadian experience - qualifications of the current incumbent should not be confused with the minimum requirements, since he or she might be underqualified or overqualified - For entry-level jobs, identifying the actual physical and mental demands is critical The Process of Job Analysis 1. Determine the job or process to be analyzed - Factors that determine whether job analysis will be concurrent (all jobs analyzed at approximately the same time) or sequential (job analyses conducted in different stages over time) include o The degree to which the selected job is central or critical o The availability of job analysts and other resources o Availability of external performance benchmarks for organizational jobs - Benchmark: external comparators for organizational jobs and performance criteria - National Occupational Classification (NOC): the Canadian government database that contains standardized job descriptions on thousands of jobs o reference tool for writing job descriptions and job specifications o compiled by the federal government (HRSDC) o contains comprehensive, standardized descriptions of about 30,000 occupations and the requirements for each o NOC and it counseling component, The Career Handbook, both focus on occupations rather than jobs o an occupation is a collection of jobs that share some or all of a set of main duties - Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT): the U.S government’s occupational database - Occupational Information Network (O*Net): the U.S. government’s most recent occupational database and equivalent to NOC; O*Net has largely supplanted the DOT since 1998 2. Determine methods and analyze the job or process Selection criteria for job analysis methods include: - Cost – license fees for such things as copyrighted questionnaires, training, and administration - Time – time spent on survey and interview training and assessment, data coding and analysis - Flexibility of methods – this criterion has to do with whether the method is appropriate for the particular circumstances (eg. Clerical service jobs as opposed to those in manufacturing) - Validity and reliability – whether the job analysis methods have been tested and found to be accurate measures of the job’s essential elements and whether the results of these methods show a consistent pattern over repeated usage - Acceptance – some job analysis methods (eg. Direct observation, videotaping) may seem intrusive and therefore met with resistance Common methods of job analysis a. Interviews – job analyst may interview job incumbents, coworkers, supervisors, suppliers, clients and subordinates -
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