Definitions From the ITM Textbook:
Acceptable use policy (AUP) - A policy that a user must agree to follow to be provided access to a network or to the
Accounting and finance ERP component - Manages accounting data and financial processes within the enterprise with
functions such as general ledger, accounts payable, accounts receivable, budgeting, and asset management.
Adware - Software that generates ads that install themselves on a computer when a person downloads some other program
from the Internet.
Affinity grouping - Determination of which things go together.
Agile methodology - Aims for customer satisfaction through early and continuous delivery of useful software components,
developed by an iterative process with a design point that uses the bare minimum requirements.
Alliance partners - Competitor organizations that co-operate with one another since doing so allows them to compete
more successfully with other competitors.
Analysis latency - The time from which data are made available to the time when analysis is complete.
Analysis phase - Analyzing end-user business requirements and refining project goals into defined functions and
operations of the intended system.
Analytical CRM - Supports back-office operations and strategic analysis and includes all systems that do not deal directly
with the customers.
Analytical information - Encompasses all summarized or aggregated transactional data, and its primary purpose is to
support the performing of higher-level analysis tasks.
Anti-spam policy - States that email users will not send unsolicited emails (or spam).
Application architecture - Determines how applications integrate and relate to each other.
Application programming interface (API) - A set of routines, protocols, and tools for building software applications.
Application service provider (ASP) - A company that offers an organization access over the Internet to systems and
related services that would otherwise have to be located in personal or organizational computers.
Artificial intelligence (AI) - Simulates human intelligence, such as the ability to reason and learn.
As-Is process models - Represent the current state of the operation that has been mapped, without any specific
improvements or changes to existing processes.
Associate programs (affiliate programs) - Businesses can generate commissions or royalties from an Internet site.
Association detection - Reveals the degree to which variables are related and the nature and frequency of these
relationships in the information.
Asynchronous communications - Communications that occur at the same time, such as instant messaging.
Attitudes toward using the portal - The values, perceptions, and beliefs that end-users have toward using a portal.
Attributes - Characteristics or properties of an entity class.
Authentication - A method for confirming users' identities.
Authorization - The process of giving someone permission to do or have something.
Automatic call distribution - A phone switch routes inbound calls to available agents.
Availability - Addresses when systems can be accessed by users.
Backdoor programs - Viruses that open a way into the network for future attacks.
Backup - An exact copy of a system's data.
Backward integration - Takes information entered into a given system and sends it automatically to all upstream systems and processes.
Balanced scorecard - A management system (not only a measurement system) that enables organizations to clarify their
vision and strategy and translate them into action.
Bandwidth - The difference between the highest and the lowest frequencies that can be transmitted on a single
communication medium; a measure of a communication medium's capacity.
Banner ad - Small ad on one Web site that advertises the products and services of another business, usually another e-
Benchmarking - The process of continuously measuring system results, comparing those results to optimal system
performance (benchmark values), and identifying steps and procedures to improve system performance.
Benchmarks - Baseline values the system seeks to attain.
Biometrics - The identification of a user based on a physical characteristic, such as a fingerprint, iris, face, voice, or
Black-hat hackers - Break into other people's computer systems and may just look around or steal and destroy
Bluetooth - A telecommunications industry specification that describes how mobile phones, computers, personal digital
assistants (PDAs), and tablets can be easily interconnected using a short-range wireless connection.
Brick-and-mortar business - A business that operates in a physical store without an Internet presence.
Broadband - High-speed Internet connections transmitting data at speeds greater than 200 kilobytes per second (Kbps)
compared to the 56 Kbps maximum speed offered by traditional dial-up connections.
Bullwhip effect - Occurs when distorted product demand information passes from one entity to the next throughout the
Business continuity planning - A plan for how an organization will recover and restore partially or completely interrupted
critical function(s) within a predetermined time after a disaster or extended disruption.
Business intelligence - Applications and technologies that are used to gather, provide access to, and analyze information
to support people's decision-making efforts.
Business portals - Synonymous with the terms corporate portal andenterprise portal.
Business process - A standardized set of activities that accomplishes a specific task, such as processing a customer's order.
Business process improvement - Attempts to understand and measure a business process and make performance
improvements on that process accordingly.
Business process management (BPM) - Integrates all of an organization's business processes to make individual
processes more efficient.
Business process model - A graphic description of a process showing the sequence of process tasks, which is developed
for a specific purpose and from a selected viewpoint.
Business process modelling (or mapping) - The activity of creating a detailed flow chart, work flow diagram, use case
diagram, or process map of a work process showing its inputs, tasks, and activities, in a structured sequence.
Business process reengineering (BPR) - The analysis and redesign of workflow within and between enterprises.
Business requirement - The detailed set of business requests that the system must meet in order to be successful. Business wikis - Collaborative Web pages that allow users to edit documents, share ideas, or monitor the status of a
Business-critical integrity constraints - Enforce business rules vital to an organization's success and often require more
insight and knowledge than relational integrity constraints.
Business-driven information systems - Systems that are implemented to support a company's competitive business
Business-facing processes - Invisible to the external customer but essential to the effective management of the business;
include goal setting, day-to-day planning, performance feedback, rewards, and resource allocation.
Business-to-business (B2B) - Applies to businesses buying from and selling to each other over the Internet.
Business-to-business (B2B) marketplace - An Internet-based service that brings together many buyers and sellers.
Business-to-consumer (B2C) - Applies to any business that sells its products or services to consumers over the Internet.
Buyer power - High when buyers have many choices of whom to buy from and low when their choices are few.
Call-scripting systems - Access organizational databases that track similar issues or questions and automatically generate
the details for the CSR who can then relay them to the customer.
Campaign management systems - Guide users through marketing campaigns, performing such tasks as campaign
definition, planning, scheduling, segmentation, and success analysis.
Capacity planning - Determines the future IT infrastructure requirements for new equipment and additional network
Change control board (CCB) - Responsible for approving or rejecting all change requests.
Change management - A set of techniques that aid in evolution, composition, and policy management of the design and
implementation of a system.
Change management system - Includes a collection of procedures to document a change request and define the steps
necessary to consider the change based on the expected impact of the change.
Chief information officer (CIO) - Responsible for (1) overseeing all uses of information systems and (2) ensuring the
strategic alignment of IT with business goals and objectives.
Chief knowledge officer (CKO) - Responsible for collecting, maintaining, and distributing the organization's knowledge.
Chief privacy officer (CPO) - Responsible for ensuring the ethical and legal use of information within an organization.
Chief security officer (CSO) - Responsible for ensuring the security of IT systems and developing strategies and IT
safeguards against attacks from hackers and viruses.
Chief technology officer (CTO) - Responsible for ensuring the throughput, speed, accuracy, availability, and reliability of
an organization's information technology.
Classification - The assignment of records to one of a predefined set of classes.
Click-and-mortar business - A business that operates in a physical store and on the Internet.
Clickstream - Records information about a customer during a Web surfing session, such as what Web sites were visited,
how long the visit was, what ads were viewed, and what was purchased.
Clickstream data - Exact pattern of a consumer's navigation through a site.
Click-through - A count of the number of people who visit one site and click on an advertisement that takes them to the
site of the advertiser.
Cloud computing - A form of client/server computing operating over the Internet where the term “cloud” is used as a
metaphor for the term Internet.
Cluster analysis - A technique used to divide an information set into mutually exclusive groups such that the members of each group are as close together as possible to one another and the different groups are as far apart as possible.
Clustering - Segmentation of a heterogeneous population of records into a number of more homogeneous subgroups.
Cold site - A separate facility that does not have any computer equipment, but is a place where employees can move after a
Collaboration system - An IT-based set of tools that supports the work of teams by facilitating the sharing and flow of
Collaborative demand planning - Helps organizations reduce their investment in inventory, while improving customer
satisfaction through product availability.
Collaborative engineering - Allows an organization to reduce the cost and time required during the design process of a
Communication space - Supports discussion among employees, especially for negotiating collective interpretations and
shared meanings about the information accessed and retrieved.
Competitive advantage - A product or service that an organization's customers place a greater value on than similar
offerings from a competitor.
Computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW) - A field of research concerned with the development and use of
software to help groups increase their competency in working together.
Confidentiality - The assurance that messages and information are available only to those who are authorized to view
Consolidation - Involves the aggregation of information and features simple roll-ups to complex groupings of interrelated
Consumer-to-business (C2B) - Applies to any consumer that sells a product or service to a business over the Internet.
Consumer-to-consumer (C2C) - Applies to sites primarily offering goods and services to assist consumers interacting
with each other over the Internet.
Contact centre (call centre) - Customer service representatives (CSRs) answer customer inquiries and respond to
problems through a number of different customer touchpoints.
Contact management CRM system - Maintains customer contact information and identifies prospective customers for
Content filtering - Occurs when organizations use software that filters content to prevent the transmission of
Content management system - Provides tools to manage the creation, storage, editing, and publication of information in
a collaborative environment.
Content space - Facilitates information access and retrieval.
Cookie - A small file deposited on a hard drive by a Web site containing information about customers and their Web
Coordination space - Supports cooperative work action between employees, facilitates workflow processes, and the
accomplishment of work tasks.
Copyright - The legal protection afforded an expression of an idea, such as a song, video game, and some types of
Core competency - An organization's key strength or business function that it does better than any of its competitors.
Core competency strategy - When an organization chooses to focus specifically on what it does best (its core competency)
and forms partnerships and alliances with other specialist organizations to handle non-strategic business processes. Core ERPcomponent - Traditional components included in most ERP systems and they primarily focus on internal
Corporate policy - A dimension of social responsibility that refers to the position a firm takes on social and political
Corporate portals - This term is synonymous with the terms business portal and enterprise portal.
Corporate responsibility - A dimension of social responsibility that includes everything from hiring minority workers to
making safe products.
Counterfeit software - Software that is manufactured to look like the real thing and sold as such.
Cracker - A hacker with criminal intent.
Critical path - A path from the start to the finish that passes through all the tasks that are critical to completing the
project in the shortest amount of time.
CRM analysis systems - Help organizations segment their customers into categories such as best and worst customers.
CRM manager - A person in an organization who is held accountable and is responsible for the continued successful
rollout of CRM in that organization.
CRM predicting systems - Help organizations make predictions regarding customer behaviour, such as which customers
are at risk of leaving.
CRM reporting systems - Help organizations identify their customers across other applications.
Cross-selling - Selling additional products or services to a customer.
Crowdsourcing - The most common form of collective intelligence found outside the organization is crowdsourcing,
which refers to the wisdom of the crowd.
Cube - The common term for the representation of multi-dimensional information.
Customer relationship management (CRM) - Involves managing all aspects of a customer's relationship with an
organization to increase customer loyalty and retention, and an organization's profitability.
Customer-facing processes - The result in a product or service that is received by an organization's external customer.
Cybermediation - The creation of new kinds of intermediaries that simply could not have existed before the advent of e-
business, including comparison-shopping sites such as Kelkoo and bank account aggregation services such as Citibank.
Cyberterrorist - Seeks to cause harm to people or to destroy critical systems or information; uses the Internet as a weapon
of mass destruction.
Data - Raw facts that describe the characteristics of an event.
Data architecture - Identifies where and how important data, like customer records, are maintained and secured.
Data integrity - A measure of the quality of data.
Data latency - The time duration to make data ready for analysis (i.e., the time for extracting, transforming, cleansing,
and loading the data into a database.)
Data mart - Contains a subset of data warehouse information.
Data mining - The process of analyzing data to extract information not offered by the raw data alone.
Data redundancy - The duplication of data, or storing the same data in multiple places.
Data visualization (information aesthetics) - The ability to visualize data so that information can be communicated
clearly and effectively.
Data warehouse - A logical collection of information—gathered from many different operational databases—that supports
business analysis activities and decision-making tasks. Database - Maintains information about various types of objects (inventory), events (transactions), people (employees),
and places (warehouses).
Database management system (DBMS) - Software through which users and application programs interact with a
Database-based workflow systems - Store documents in a central location and automatically ask the team members to
access the document when it is their turn to edit the document.
Data-driven Web site - An interactive Web site kept constantly updated and relevant to the needs of its customers through
the use of a database.
Data-mining tools - Use a variety of techniques to find patterns and relationships in large volumes of information and
infer rules from them that predict future behaviour and guide decision making.
Dealers - Agents who sell products or services on behalf of a company or organization, particularly in the automobile
Decision latency - The time it takes a human to comprehend the analytic result and determine an appropriate action.
Decision support system (DSS) - Models data and information to support managers, analysts, and other business
professionals during the decision-making process for more analytical purposes.
Demand planning systems - Generates demand forecasts using statistical tools and forecasting techniques.
Denial-of-service attack (DoS) - Floods a Web site with so many requests for service that it slows down or crashes the
Dependency - A logical relationship that exists between the project tasks, or between a project task and a milestone.
Design phase - Involves describing the desired features and operations of the system including screen layouts, business
rules, process diagrams, pseudo code, and other documentation.
Development phase - Involves taking all of the detailed design documents from the design phase and transforming them
into the actual system.
Digital asset management system (DAM) - Though similar to document management, DAM generally works with binary
rather than text files, such as multimedia file types.
Digital Darwinism - Organizations that cannot adapt to the new demands placed on them for surviving in the information
age are doomed to extinction.
Digital dashboard - Integrates information from multiple components and tailors the information to individual
Digital divide - When those with access to technology have great advantages over those without access to technology.
Digital wallet - Both software and information—the software provides security for the transaction and the information
includes payment and delivery information (e.g., the credit card number and expiration date).
Dimension - A particular attribute of information.
Disaster recovery cost curve - Charts (1) the cost to the organization of the unavailability of information and technology
and (2) the cost to the organization of recovering from a disaster over time.
Disaster recovery plan - A detailed process for recovering information or an IT system in the event of a catastrophic
disaster such as a fire or flood.
Disintermediation - Occurs when a business sells directly to the customer online and cuts out the intermediary.
Disruptive technology - A new way of doing things that initially does not meet the needs of existing customers.
Distributed denial-of-service attack (DDoS) - Attacks from multiple computers that flood a Web site with so many
requests for service that it slows down or crashes. Distribution management systems - Coordinate the process of transporting materials from a manufacturer to distribution
centres to the final customer.
Document management system (DMS) - Supports the electronic capturing, storage, distribution, archival, and accessing
Drill-down - Enables users to view details, and details of details, of information.
E-business - The conducting of business on the Internet, not only buying and selling, but also serving customers and
collaborating with business partners.
E-business model - An approach to conducting electronic business on the Internet.
E-commerce - The buying and selling of goods and services over the Internet.
Effectiveness IS metrics - Measures the impact IS has on business processes and activities including customer
satisfaction, conversion rates, and sell-through increases.
Efficiency IS metrics - Measures the performance of the IS itself such as throughput, speed, and availability.
E-government - Involves the use of strategies and technologies to transform government(s) by improving the delivery of
services and enhancing the quality of interaction between the citizen-consumer within all branches of government.
Electronic bill presentment and payment (EBPP) - System that sends bills over the Internet and provides an easy-to-use
mechanism (such as clicking on a button) to pay the bill.
Electronic catalogue - Presents customers with information about goods and services offered for sale, bid, or auction on
Electronic cheque - Mechanism for sending a payment from a chequing or savings account.
Electronic data interchange (EDI) - A standard format for exchanging business data.
Electronic marketplaces (e-marketplaces) - Interactive business communities providing a central market space where
multiple buyers and suppliers can engage in e-business activities.
Electronic tagging - A technique for identifying and tracking assets and individuals via technologies, such as radio
frequency identification and smart cards.
Elevation of privilege - Process by which a user misleads a system into granting unauthorized rights, usually for the
purpose of compromising or destroying the system.
E-logistics - Manages the transportation and storage of goods.
E-mall - Consists of a number of e-shops; it serves as a gateway through which a visitor can access other e-shops.
Employee relationship management (ERM) - A management activity that focuses on managing an organization's
relationships with its employees.
Encryption - Scrambles information into an alternative form that requires a key or password to decrypt the information.
Enterprise application integration (EAI) middleware - Represents a new approach to middleware by packaging
together commonly used functionality, such as providing pre-built links to popular enterprise applications, which reduces
the time necessary to develop solutions that integrate applications from multiple vendors.
Enterprise architect - Person grounded in technology, fluent in business, a patient diplomat, and provides the important
bridge between IT and the business.
Enterprise architecture (EA) - Includes the plans for how an organization will build, deploy, use, and share its data,
processes, and IT assets.
Enterprise portals - Single-point Web browser interfaces used within an organization to promote the gathering, sharing,
and dissemination of information throughout an enterprise. Enterprise resource planning (ERP) - Integrates all departments and functions throughout an organization into a single
information system (or integrated set of information systems) so that employees can make decisions by viewing enterprise-
wide data on all business operations.
Entity - A person, place, thing, transaction, or event about which information is stored.
Entity class - A collection of similar entities.
Environmental scanning - The acquisition and analysis of events and trends in the environment external to an
E-policies - Policies and procedures that address the ethical use of computers and Internet usage in the business
E-procurement - The B2B purchase and sale of supplies and services over the Internet.
E-shop (e-store, e-tailer) - A version of a retail store where customers can shop at any hour of the day without leaving
their home or office.
Estimation - Determines values for an unknown continuous variable behaviour or estimated future value.
Ethical computer use policy - Contains general principles to guide computer user behaviour.
Ethics - Principles and standards that guide our behaviour toward other people.
E-waste - Old computer equipment.
Executive information system (EIS) - A specialized DSS that supports senior level executives within the organization.
Executive sponsor - The person or group who provides the financial resources for the project.
Expert systems - Computerized advisory programs that imitate the reasoning processes of experts in solving difficult
Explicit knowledge - Consists of anything that can be documented, archived, and codified, often with the help of
Extended ERPcomponent - The extra components that meet the organizational needs not covered by the core
components and primarily focus on external operations.
Extensible Markup Language (XML) - A markup language for documents containing structured information.
Extraction, transformation, and loading (ETL) - A process that extracts information from internal and external
databases, transforms the information using a common set of enterprise definitions, and loads the information into a data
Extranet - An intranet that is available to strategic allies (such as customers, suppliers, and partners).
Extreme programming (XP) methodology - Breaks a project into tiny phases, and developers cannot continue on to the
next phase until the first phase is complete.
Failover - Backup operational mode in which the functions of a computer component (such as a processor, server,
network, or database) are assumed by secondary system components when the primary component becomes unavailable
through either failure or scheduled down time.
Fair dealing - In certain situations, it is legal to use copyrighted material.
Fault tolerance - A computer system designed so that, in the event a component fails, a backup component or procedure
can immediately take its place with no loss of service.
Feature creep - Occurs when developers add extra features that were not part of the initial requirements.
Financial cybermediary - Internet-based company that facilitates payments over the Internet.
Financial EDI (financial electronic data interchange) - Standard electronic process for B2B market purchase payments. Firewall - Hardware and/or software that guards a private network by analyzing the information leaving and entering the
First-mover advantage - An organization can significantly impact its market share by being first to market with a
Five Forces Model - Helps determine the relative competitive attractiveness of an industry.
Forecasts - Predictions made on the basis of time-series information.
Foreign key - A primary key of one table that appears as an attribute in another table and acts to provide a logical
relationship between the two tables.
Forward integration - Takes information entered into a given system and sends it automatically to all downstream
systems and processes.
Functional systems - Information systems that serve a single business unit, such as accounting.
Fuzzy logic - A mathematical method of handling imprecise or subjective information.
Gantt chart - A simple bar chart that depicts project tasks against a calendar.
Genetic algorithm - An artificial intelligence system that mimics the evolutionary, survival-of-the-fittest process to
generate increasingly better solutions to a problem.
Geographic information system (GIS) - Designed to work with information that can be shown on a map.
Global inventory management systems (GIMS) - Provide the ability to locate, track, and predict the movement of every
component or material anywhere upstream or downstream in the supply chain.
Global positioning system (GPS) - A constellation of 24 well-spaced satellites that orbit the Earth and make it possible
for people with ground receivers to pinpoint their geographic location.
Goal-seeking analysis - Finds the inputs necessary to achieve a goal such as a desired level of output.
Granularity - The extent of detail within data and information (e.g., it can be fine and detailed vs. coarse and abstract)
Grid computing - An aggregation of geographically dispersed computing, storage, and network resources, coordinated to
deliver improved performance, higher quality of service, better utilization, and easier access to data.
Groupware - Software that supports team interaction and dynamics, including calendaring, scheduling, and video
Hackers - People very knowledgeable about computers, who use their knowledge to invade other people's computers.
Hactivists - People with philosophical and political reasons for breaking into systems and who often deface the Web site as
Hardware key logger - A hardware device that captures keystrokes on their journey from the keyboard to the
Hierarchical database model - Information is organized into a tree-like structure that allows repeating information using
parent/child relationships, in such a way that it cannot have too many relationships.
High availability - Refers to a system or component that is continuously operational for a desirably long length of time.
Hoaxes - Attack computer systems by transmitting a virus hoax, with a real virus attached.
Horizontal enterprise portals - Enterprise portals that integrate and aggregate information from multiple applications
found across the organization.
Hot site - A separate and fully equipped facility where the company can move immediately after a disaster and resume
Human resources ERPcomponents - Track employee data including payroll, benefits, compensation, and performance
assessment, and assure compliance with the legal requirements of multiple jurisdictions and tax au