• Bullwhip effect 154: Occurs when distorted product demand information passes from one entity to
the next throughout the supply chain.
• Collaborative demand planning 160: Helps organizations reduce their investment in inventory,
while improving customer satisfaction through product availability.
• Collaborative engineering 160: Allows an organization to reduce the cost and time required during
the design process of a product.
• Distribution management systems 146: Coordinate the process of transporting materials from a
manufacturer to distribution centres to the final customer.
• Global inventory management systems (GIMS) 146: Provide the ability to locate, track, and
predict the movement of every component or material anywhere upstream or downstream in the
• International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 147: A nongovernmental organization
established in 1947 to promote the development of world standards to facilitate the international
exchange of goods and services.
• Inventory management and control systems 146: Provide control and visibility to the status of
individual items maintained in inventory.
• Material requirements planning (MRP) systems 146: Uses sales forecasts to make sure that needed
parts and materials are available at the right time and place in a specific company.
• Operational planning and control (OP&C) 146: Deals with the daytoday procedures for
performing work, including scheduling, inventory, and process management.
• Operations management (OM) 142: The management of systems or processes that convert or
transform resources (including human resources) into goods and services.
• Production 142: The creation of goods and services using the factors of production: land, labour,
capital, entrepreneurship, and knowledge.
• Production ma