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Chapter 4

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Information Technology Management
ITM 102

Chapter 4­ enterprise, computing  challenges and enterprise resource  planning 4.1 Enterprise Computing Challenges - today’s organizations focus on defending and safeguarding their existing market positions in addition to targeting new market growth st o the primary changes and challenges organizations are focusing on in the 21 century include:  innovation: finding new.  Social entrepreneurship: going green.  Social networks: who’s who.  Virtual worlds: it’s a whole new world INNOVATION :FINDING NEW - Innovation drives IT - Innovation: introduction of new equipments or methods - Cut cost while still creating a competitive advantage 6 best practises of innovation 1. Find your relevant edge a. Business executives need to find relevant edges that will test and push their current performance 2. Assemble innovation hothouses a. Attract motivated groups of people to these edges to work together on challenging performance issues b. Large companies are establishing remote outposts c. Key challenge is to connect these company-owned facilities more effectively with their local environment as well as with each other 3. Reward risk takers 4. Celebrate diversity a. Protect and honor these edgy cultures 5. Look around 6. Mix practitioners and developers a. Bring users and developers of technology together SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP: GOING GREEN - Social responsibility: an entity, whether it is a gov’t, corporation, organization, or individual, has a responsibility to society - Corporate policy: dimensions of social responsibility that refers to the position a firm takes on social and political issues - Corporate responsibility: dimension of social responsibility that includes everything from hiring minority workers to making safe products - Sustainable, or green IT: describes the manufacture, management, use, and disposal of information technology in a way that minimizes damage to the environment, which is a critical part of a corporation’s responsibility o This portion covers  Energy consumption  Recycling IT equipment  Greener IT Energy Consumption - HP launched Designed for Environment program o Recycling, energy efficiency - Need to make data centres more energy efficient - Pressure is on for tech companies, utilities, and builders to come up with new ways of cutting energy consumption. They have come up with the following: o Sun microsystems: throughput computing  Before, everybody thought chips had a single focus, to process data as fast as possible • Fatal flaw in this, faster chips would run so hot they would burn out • Therefore, Marc tremblay of sun microsystems designed a multi- core chip. (several processors, sucking less energy individually but getting more work done) o Virtualization  Framework of dividing the resources of a computer into multiple execution environments o Energy rebate programs o Smart cooling o Alternative energy sources o Biology meets chips o Government involvement Recycle IT equipment - sustainable IT disposal: safe disposal of IT assets at the end of their life cylces - e-waste: old computer equipment - ensures ewaste does not end up in landfills - in Canada, provincial laws require that e-waste be recycled o Electronic product stewardship Canada (EPSC): was created to promote harmonization among provincial electronic waste regulatory programs o Encourage strong environmental standards for treatment of e-waste o National geographic green guide say 50-80 % of recycled electronics end up in developing nations Greener IT - sharing office space, home equipment and subsidies for DSL and electricity - IT systems can also save energy by controlling heat and air-conditioning in office - Ways to save energy in a data centre: o Use outside air for cooling o Cool high-density areas o Use low-power processors o Incorporate cooling solutions o Use server power management o Buy high-efficiency power supplies o Use virtualization to consolidate servers S OCIAL NETWORKS :WHO S WHO - ex: linkedIn passive search - recruiters troll online networks for potential job candidates - hiring back former workers - the holy grail in recruiting is finding so-called passive candidates, people who are happy and productive working for other companies boomerangs - former employers that are lured back - boomerangs cost less to train than new hires and they tend to hit the ground running marketing networks V IRTUAL WORLDS :ITS A WHOLE NEW WORLD - virtual world: o virtual workforce o virtual worlds  ex: second life o virtual organization - virtual workforce o getting more employees to work from home o Theres lots of benefits of freeing workers from the office however there is also drawbacks  Not everyone wants to leave • Afraid to fall off social ladder • Others need working environment to stay productive • Keeping tabs on virtual workers are harder  Obstacles like these prompt companies to seek creative solutions such as combination of mobile devices, email etc. to help colleagues stay in touch o Tools for virtual workforce  Mobility and wireless capabilities are the tools of the virtual workforce, and include • Mobile commerce • Telematics o Blending of technologies  Ex internet • Electronic tagging o Identifiying and tracking assets via technology  Ex RFID and smart cards 4.2 enterprise resource planning - ERP integrates all departments and functions throughout an organization into a single information system - reasons ERP systems are powerful organizational tools: o erp is a logical solution to the mess of incompatible applications that had sprung up in most businesses o ERP addresses the need for global information sharing and reporting o ERP is used to avoid the pain and expenses of fixing legacy systems Legacy systems and ERP - legacy system: older computer technology that remains in use even though there are newer systems available - challenges with replacing legacy systems are two fold o 1. Important data that needs to be converted to the new systems is often not compatible as it currently exists o 2. Data is usually stored in funct
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