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Chapter 1-7

ITM 102 Textbook Notes Chapters 1-7

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Information Technology Management
ITM 102
Vikraman Baskaran

ITM 102 Textbook NotesChapter 1Information Systems in Global Business Todayy 3 interrelated changes in the technology areaEmerging mobile digital platform iPhones BlackBerrys and tiny websurfing netbooksGrowth of online software as a serviceGrowth in cloud computing where more and more business software runs the Internet y YouTube iPhones BlackBerrys and Facebook represent new emerging computer platforms based on an array of new hardware and software technologies and business investments y In 2005 journalist Thomas Friedman wrote a book declaring the world as flat meaning that the Internet and global communications had greatly reduced the economic and cultural advantages of developed countries y Emergence of the Internet into a fullblown international communications system has drastically reduced the costs of operating and transacting on a global scale y Digital Firmone in which nearly all of the organizations significant business relationships with customers suppliers and employees are digitally enabled and mediated y Business processesrefer to the set of logically related tasks and behaviours that organizations develop over time to produce specific business results and the unique manner in which these activities are organized and coordinatedExamples developing a new product generating and fulfilling an order creating a marketing plan and hiring an employee y Time shiftingrefers to business being conducted continuously 247 y Space shiftingmeans that work takes place in a global workshop as well as within national boundaries and it is accomplished physically wherever it is best accomplished y Business Strategic Objectives Business Processes Business FirmSoftware Information System HardwareData ManagementTelecommunications y Business firms invest heavily in information systems to achieve 6 strategic business objectivesOperational Excellenceinformation systemstechnologies are the tools available to managers for achieving higher levels of efficiencyproductivity in business operations especially when coupled with changes in business practices and management behaviourNew ProductsServicesBusiness Modelsinformation systemstechnologies are a major enabling tool for firms to create new productsservices as well as entirely new business models describes how a company produces delivers and sells a productservice to create wealthCustomerSupplier Intimacyproviding a good impression to a customer could influence the customer to return to shop at that companys retail store in the future same goes for suppliers as the more a business engages its suppliers the better the suppliers can provide vital inputs which lowers costsImproved Decision Makingmanagers rely on forecasts best guesses and luck to make decisions as they never really have the right information at the right time and this as a result either leads to an overproductionunderproduction of goodsservices misallocation of resources or poor response times which raise costs and lose customersCompetitive Advantagewhen firms achieve 1 or more of any of the previous business objectives chances are they have already achieved a competitive advantage by doing things better than your competitors charging less for superior products and responding to customers and suppliers in real time all add up to higher saleshigher profits that your competitors cannot matchSurvivalbusiness firms also invest in information systems and technologies because they are necessities of doing business where they are driven by industrylevel changes y Information technology ITconsists of all the hardwaresoftware that a firm needs to use in order to achieve its business objectives y Information system ISset of interrelated components that collect or retrieve process store and distribute information to support decision making and control in an organization in addition IS may also help managers and workers analyze problems visualize complex subjects and create new products y Informationdata that has been shaped into a form that is meaningful and useful to humans y Datastreams of raw facts representing events occurring in organizations or the physical environment before they have been organized and arranged into a form that people can understand and use y 4 activities in an IS produce the information that organizations need to make decisions control operations analyze problems and create new productsservicesInputcapturescollects raw data from within the organization or from its external environmentProcessingconverts this raw input into a meaningful formOutputtransfers the processed information to the people who will use it or to the activities for which it will be usedFeedbackoutput that is returned to appropriate members of the organization to help them evaluate or correct the input and processing stages y Information systems literacybroader understanding of IS which encompasses an understanding of the management and organizational dimensions of systems as well as the technical dimensions of systems y Computer literacyfocuses primarily on knowledge of IT y The field of management IS MIS tries to achieve this broader information systems literacy y MIS deals with behavioural issues as well as technical issues surrounding the development use and impact of information systems used by managers and employees in the firm y 3 dimensions of IS 1 Organizationskey elements are its people structure business processes politics and culture authorityresponsibility in a business firm are organized as a hierarchy or pyramid structure where the upper levels consist of managerial professional and technical employees while the lower levels consist of operational personnel o Senior managementmakes longrange strategic decisions about productsservices and ensures the financial performance of the firm o Middle managementcarries out the programs and plans of senior management o Operational managementresponsible for monitoring the business daily activities o Knowledge workerssuch as engineersscientistsarchitects design productsservices and create new knowledge for the firm o Date workerssuch as secretariesclerks assist with paperwork at all levels of the firm o Productionservice workers actually produce the product and deliver the service o Business functionsspecialized tasks performed by business organizations consist of sales and marketing manufacturing and production finance and accounting and human resources
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