ITM Chapter 2.doc

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Department
Information Technology Management
Course
ITM 102
Professor
Ross Mc Naughton
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 2 - Technology Essentials IT Allows you to... - communicate - enables transactions - obtain, organize, analyze, and store data and information - provide entertainment Components of IT - accepting and storing information - performing mathematical calculations - applying logic to make decisions - retrieving, displaying, and sending information - consistently repeating the above actions many times Three Categories 1. Hardware - the electronic and mechanical components that you can see and touch 2. Software - the set of instructions that direct the hardware 3. Network - increases their power by allowing users to share resources, including hardware, soft- ware, and information - These three basic categories together create a platform. Hardware - Processing Hardware - directs the execution of instructions and the transformation of data using tran- sistors (an electric switch that can be either on or off) - a tiny chip made up of transistors is called a microprocessor - this chip contains most of the components that make up the central processing unit (CPU) - computer speed is called the clock speed and is measure in megahertz (MHz), millions of cycles per second and gigahertz (GHz), billions of cycles per second - Computer hierarchy categorizes processors according to their power Chapter 2 - Technology Essentials - Embedded processors are programmable chips built into products to make them “smart” eg. DSPs - Memory - memory temporarily locates data and instructions before processing. - long-term memory helps you keep track of facts - short-term memory is only for items that you need to remember for a relatively short time - computers have long-term memory (ROM) and short-term memory (RAM) stored on chips - Capacity of memory devices range from thousands (KB), millions (MB), billions (GB) - Read only memory contains instructions and data that only special devices can alter - Random access memory stores data only until they are no longer needed, or until you shut down the computer - Input Hardware - provides the interface used for data entry into a device. - Output Hardware - provides the interface used to retrieve information from a device - Storage Hardware - stores data, information, and instructions for the long term. - Communications Hardware - connects one IT device to another - Network Interface card (NIC) provides the physical connection between a com- puter and a local network - Modems, both wired and wireless, allow you to connect to a remote network over a telecommunications line, such as the telephone or cable TV service - Modem speeds are measured in bits per second (bps) Software - System Software Chapter 2 - Technology Essentials - includes any software required to control the hardware components and to sup- port the execution of application software - operating system (OS) software coordinates and handles the details of working with the computer hardware - manages the hardware and software resources of the computer - provides a stable and consistent interface between application programs and the hardware - utility software provides additional tools that you can use to maintain and ser- vice your system ← - Application Software - a complete, self-contained program or set of programs for performing a specific job - productivity software is an important group of application software for business professionals - document preparation software - electronic spreadsheet software - presentation graphic software - database management system (DBMS) - personal information management (PIM) - Middleware - is a software that is more common in enterprises - purpose is to link applications that use dissimilar software or hardware platforms and act like a specialized messenger/translator to manage the exchange of in- formation - Open Source Software - is software that can be used, modified, improved, and redistributed - usually developed by a community of developers that are interested in the sub- ject matter of the software and want to share their work with others - free or at a very low cost Connecting Over Networks - consists of nodes that represent computer hardware and the network users - requires four primary components: - data (the resource) that computers share on the network Chapter 2 - Technology Essentials - special hardware - software that allows computers to communicate and share the data - communication media to link the computers together - Network Categories - two extreme sizes are local area network (LAN) and wide area net
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