ITM Chapter 4.doc

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Ryerson University
Information Technology Management
ITM 102
Ross Mc Naughton

Chapter 4 - Enterprise Systems Building and Understanding of the Value Chain - The value chain is a connected series of activities, each of which adds value or sup- ports the addition of value to the firm’s good or services. - Five core components: - Inbound Logistics - the receiving, warehousing, and inventory control of raw materials re- quired to create a product or service. - Operations - the value-creating and often proprietary activities that transform the raw inputs into the final product. - Outbound Logistics - the activities required to get the finished product to the customer, includ- ing packaging, warehousing, and order fulfillment. - Marketing and Sales - all activities associated with getting buyers to purchase the product, in- cluding working with distributors, retailers or online channels, marketing, advertising, and pricing. - Service Activities - those that maintain and enhance the product’s value, including customer support, repair services, and warranty and recall. ← - Primary activities directly related to the production and distribution of the organization’s products and services. - Support activities are value chain activities that an organization conducts to support the creation of business value by the primary activities. - Firm infrastructure (administration) - Technology development - Human resource management - Procurement Information Systems that Support Business Activities - Functional information systems - focus on the activities of the functional department to improve its efficiency and effectiveness. - accounting, marketing, human resources, financial, manufacturing IS - Workflow management systems Chapter 4 - Enterprise Systems - represents the steps, organizational resources, input and output data, and tools needed to complete a business process. - supports activities that several departments of the organization may carry out. - benefits include less misplaced or stalled work, managers can focus more time on business decision rather than on tracking work, more analysis and tighter control of the processes. - Business rule is a statement that defines or constrains some aspect of the busi- ness. - Transaction processing systems - transaction is an exchange of goods or services between two or more parties that creates a relationship between the parties. - enables transaction activities and capture the key data created by the transac- tion. - ACID: Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, Durability - ACID allow organizations to create systems that can handle large numbers of simultaneous transactions. - Management information and document management systems - Periodic reports include financial statements or monthly sales reports. - Exception reports monitor when and why exceptions occur of key values, de- fined as critical to the operation. - Demand reports are generated based on user requests. - Executive information systems (EIS) designed to provide summary information about business performance to those making high-level strategic decisions. - Document management systems when organizations begin to recognize data management needs that revolve around business documents. - Knowledge management systems - Explicit knowledge includes anything that can be written down, stored, and codi- fied. - Tacit knowledge includes the know-how that people have through learning and experience. - Groupware: Communication tools, conferencing tools, collaborative manage- ment tools. - Decision support systems Chapter 4 - Enterprise Systems - Help businesses use communications technologies, knowledge, and models to organize and access data to perform decision-making activities. - Financial models, statistical models, optimization models, simulation modeling. - Types of DSS include: communications-driven, data-driven, document-driven, knowledge-driven, model-driven. - Supply chain management - Supply chain is a system of organizations, people, technology, activities, infor- mation, and resources involved in moving a product or service from supplier to customer. - Manages materials, information, and finances as they move from supplier to manufacturer to wholesaler to retailer to consumer. - Materials managements, inventory management, order management, logistics management. - Enterprise resource planning - A way of integrating the departments and functions across an organization. - Companies run its applications from a single database. - Improves organizational efficiency and effectiveness. - Provides value by providing visibility throughout its delivery network, enabling new business sales, and reducing costs through process standardization. - Can become incredibly complex and difficult to mange as it grows. Enterprise Systems that Support the Value Chain - Enterprise systems are large-scale applications that support business units or func- tions. - Inbound logistics, Operations, Outbound logistics, Marketing and Sales, Service, Ad- ministration and Finance Systems, Human Resources, Technology Development, and Procurement. Software as a Service (SaaS) - Essentially renting software. -
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