Chapter 1

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Information Technology Management
ITM 200
Vikraman Baskaran

Khushi Sharma Tuesday May 1 , 2012 Chapter 1 Solving Problems with Computers -Java is one of the most popular programming languages in the world -it is very popular because it can be used to solve a wide variety of problems in different domains -Java is a great way to solve problems Computers and Programming: What is a Computer? -a computer is a general purpose device that behaves according to the sets of instructions and data -computers execute instructions to process data -each computer has its core which is called Central Processing Unit (CPU)  These days CPU’s are built with a single microprocessor chip  Each microprocessor is associated with a set of instructions (machine codes) which it can execute  Instructions and the data are stored as a binary bit pattern which is a string of 1’s and 0’s -any computer can execute instructions in the machine code language of its microprocessor What is a Computer Programmer? 1) Machine Language: -set of primitive instructions -every computer is associated with a set of “machine code” instructions that is designed to recognize and execute -machine code consists of a sequence of instructions  Example: two add two numbers you might write an instruction in binary code like this:  10010100100100101001001010 etc. -all information is stored in the sequence of ones and zeros (binary bit pattern) -it is highly to read and modify -program can be stored on a disk  In order to execute the programs, it is loaded from the disk into the computer’s internal memory; then the instructions are fetched one by one by the CPU and executed 2) Assembler Language: -in order to overcome program of writing programs using binary bit language, assembler language was developed to make a programming easy for humans to read, and programming less error prone -computers cannot understand assembly language -data can be represented using decimal numbers instead of binary  Example: Instruction to load the number 5 into a CPU might look like:  LD 5 instead of 0010010001001101 -assembler is used to convert assembly language programs into machine code  Example: to add two numbers, you might write an instruction in assembly code like this:  ADDF3 R1, R2, R3 3) High Level Languages and Compliers: -high level languages are more abstract, problem oriented instructions that captured common patterns of instruction usage found in assembler language Khushi Sharma Tuesday May 1 , 2012 rd  this meant that a single instruction from a 3 generation language might be correspond to several assembler language instructions, so that programs became shorter and more succinct -programming languages became more oriented towards solving problems and less towards machine arrditecture -3 generation language operated at a higher level of abstraction than the assembler program -Example of 3 generation language:  1980s: MODULA-2 C++  1990s: MODULA - 3 JAVA -it is English like -easy to learn and program  Example: following is a high-level language statement that computes the area of a circle with radius 5:  area = 5 * 5 * 3.1415; -in this class we will use “Java”  java is a relatively new programming language developed by Sun Microsystems, Inc  java has a built in graphical user interface support  it is intended to be platform independent  its syntax (structure) is similar to C++ but is simpler than C++ 
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