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Chapter Final

# Chapter 14 Exam Note (Session 12)

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Ryerson University

Information Technology Management

ITM 207

Henry Ojambo

Winter

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Chapter 14 ITM 207 Final Exam Notes
Simulation, Graphics and Other Applications
Chapter 14
What is Simulation?
Simulation
A model of a complex system and the experimental manipulation of the
model to observe the results.
Systems that are best suited to being simulated are dynamic,
interactive, and complicated.
Model
An abstraction of a real system.
It is a representation of the objects within the system and the rules
that govern the interactions of the objects.
Constructing Models:
Continuous simulation
- Treats time as continuous
- Expresses changes in terms of a set of different equations that reflect the
relationships among the set of characteristics
- Meteorological models fall into this category
Discrete event simulation
Made up of entities, attributes, and events
o Entity: The representation of some object in the real system that
must be explicitly defined
o Attribute: Some characteristic of a particular entity
o Event: An interaction between entities.
Queuing Systems:
A discrete-event model that uses random numbers to represent the arrival
and duration of events.
This system is made up of:
o Servers
o Queues of objects to be served
To construct a queuing model, we must know:
- The number of events and how they affect the system in order to
determine the rules of entity interaction
- The number of servers Chapter 14 ITM 207 Final Exam Notes
- The distribution of arrival times in order to determine if an entity enters
the system
- The expected service time in order to determine the duration of an event
Meteorological Models:
Models based on the time-dependent partial differential equations of fluid
mechanics and thermodynamics.
Initial values for the variables are entered from observation and the
equations are solved to define the values of the variables at some later time.
Computer models are designed to aid the weathercaster, not to replace him
or her.
o The outputs from the computer models are predictions of the
values of variables in the future
o It is up to the weathercaster to determine what the values mean
Relocatable models
Models applied to a moving target.
Computational Biology:
An interdisciplinary field that applies techniques of computer science,
applied mathematics, and statistics to problems in biology.
Encompasses bioinformatics, computational biomodeling, computational
genomics, molecular modeling, and protein structure prediction.
Graphics:
Originally the language of communications for engineers, designers, and
architects.
Computer-aided design (CAD)
A system that uses computers with advanced graphics hardware and
software to create precession drawings or technical illustrations.
Shape and surface influence an object’s appearance.
Equations used to describe planes, spheres and cylinders.
Real world surfaces are rough, which scatter light differently,
requiring texture-mapping techniques. Chapter 14 ITM 207 Final Exam Notes
Illumination model
Simulation of light interaction at one point on an object.
Shading model (shading)

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