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ITM 207 (24)
Chapter Final

Chapter 14 Exam Note (Session 12)

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Ryerson University
Information Technology Management
ITM 207
Henry Ojambo

Chapter 14 ITM 207 Final Exam Notes Simulation, Graphics and Other Applications Chapter 14 What is Simulation? Simulation A model of a complex system and the experimental manipulation of the model to observe the results. Systems that are best suited to being simulated are dynamic, interactive, and complicated. Model An abstraction of a real system. It is a representation of the objects within the system and the rules that govern the interactions of the objects. Constructing Models: Continuous simulation - Treats time as continuous - Expresses changes in terms of a set of different equations that reflect the relationships among the set of characteristics - Meteorological models fall into this category Discrete event simulation Made up of entities, attributes, and events o Entity: The representation of some object in the real system that must be explicitly defined o Attribute: Some characteristic of a particular entity o Event: An interaction between entities. Queuing Systems: A discrete-event model that uses random numbers to represent the arrival and duration of events. This system is made up of: o Servers o Queues of objects to be served To construct a queuing model, we must know: - The number of events and how they affect the system in order to determine the rules of entity interaction - The number of servers Chapter 14 ITM 207 Final Exam Notes - The distribution of arrival times in order to determine if an entity enters the system - The expected service time in order to determine the duration of an event Meteorological Models: Models based on the time-dependent partial differential equations of fluid mechanics and thermodynamics. Initial values for the variables are entered from observation and the equations are solved to define the values of the variables at some later time. Computer models are designed to aid the weathercaster, not to replace him or her. o The outputs from the computer models are predictions of the values of variables in the future o It is up to the weathercaster to determine what the values mean Relocatable models Models applied to a moving target. Computational Biology: An interdisciplinary field that applies techniques of computer science, applied mathematics, and statistics to problems in biology. Encompasses bioinformatics, computational biomodeling, computational genomics, molecular modeling, and protein structure prediction. Graphics: Originally the language of communications for engineers, designers, and architects. Computer-aided design (CAD) A system that uses computers with advanced graphics hardware and software to create precession drawings or technical illustrations. Shape and surface influence an object’s appearance. Equations used to describe planes, spheres and cylinders. Real world surfaces are rough, which scatter light differently, requiring texture-mapping techniques. Chapter 14 ITM 207 Final Exam Notes Illumination model Simulation of light interaction at one point on an object. Shading model (shading)
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