ITM207 Chapter 12.docx

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Information Technology Management
ITM 207
Youcef Derbal

Chapter12InformationSystemsInformation system can be generally defined as software that helps us organize and analyze dataoTwo of the most popular general application IS are electronic spreadsheets and database management systems122SpreadsheetsA spreadsheet is a software application that allows the user to organize and analyze data using a grid of labelled cells A cell can contain data or a formula that is used to calculate that is used to calculate a value Data stored in a cell can be text numbers or special data such as datesoFormulas can make use of basic arithmetic operations with the standard symbols etc and they can also make use of spreadsheet functions that are built into the softwareBecause functions often rely on a set of contiguous cells spreadhseets provide a convenient way to specify a range of cells For example C4C10oIt is possible that spreadsheet formulas are defined such that they create a circular reference This means that the formulas could never be resolved because the result of one formula is based on the result of another and that result is based on information from the first formula creating a loopA powerful capability in spreadsheets is the power to do whatif analysis In this analysis we can modify spreadsheet values that represent assumptions such as anticipated rise or fall in income and see how changes in those assumptions affect related dataoEx What if the number of attendees decreased by 10oWhat if we increase the ticket price to 5123Database Management Systems A database can simply be defined as a structured set of dataA database management system DBMS is a combination of software and data made up of theoPhysical databasea collection of files that contain the data
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