Chapter 1

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Ryerson University
Information Technology Management
ITM 301
Farid Shirazi

th Wednesday September 5 , 2012 Chapter 1: An Introduction to Networking Types of Networks: -network is a group of computers and other devices (such as printers) that are connected by some type of transmission media -network can be small as two computers connected by a cable or as large as several thousands computers connected across the world via a combination of cables, phone lines, cellular links -networks can link mainframe computers, printers, plotters, fax machines, phone systems -networks can communicate through copper wires, fiber optic cable, radio waves -networks allow you to manage, administer, resources on multiple computers from a central location, network increases productivity Peer-to-Peer Network: -simplest form; every computer can communicate directly with every other computer -no computer on a peer-to-peer network has more authority than another -each computer can be configured to share some of its resources -often less expensive to set up and maintain -they are not as secure (disadvantage) -not practical for connecting more than a handful of computers because they do not always centralize resources (disadvantages) -the more computers you add to a peer-to-peer network the harder it is to mange and find resources -common way to share resources on this network is by modifying the file sharing controls via the computers operating system -resource sharing is not controlled by a central computer because it depends on how many different users there are and it might not be secure Client/Server Network: -another way designing a computer is using a central computer (known as a server) to facilitate communication and resource sharing between other computers on the network which are known as clients -clients take the form of personal computers (aka workstation or mobile devices such as smartphones) -network that uses server to enable clients to share data is known as client/server network th Wednesday September 5 , 2012 -you can compare the client/server network with a library, just as a library manages books and other media by patrons, a server manages the use of shared resources by clients -every computer on a client/server network acts as a client or server -clients on client/server network do NOT share their resources directly with each other, but rather use the server -clients and servers communicate through connectivity devices such as switches or routers -servers have more memory, processing and storage capacity than clients -complex in its design and maintenance however more advantages -user logon accounts and passwords can be assigned to anyone -access to multiple shared resources can be centrally granted -problems on network can be monitored, diagnosed and fixed from one location -servers are utilized to handle heavy work load, handle request from clients and faster response time Type of Arrangements: LAN: -LAN (local area network): network of computers and other devices that is confined to a small place • Example: room, building, office -LANs are interconnected and rely on several servers running many different applications and managing resources other than data -in a building which runs on its own LAN, and all the LANs are connected; the network may contain dozens of servers, hundreds of workstations, storage devices, printers, plotters, fax machine, telephone interfaces MAN: -MAN (metropolitan area network): network larger than LAN and connects clients and servers from multiple buildings • Example: government offices, city network -MAN may use different technology because of the distance it covers WAN: -WAN (wide area network): network that connects two or more geographically distinct LANs and MA
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