Chapter 2

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Information Technology Management
ITM 301
Farid Shirazi

th Wednesday September 12 , 2012 Chapter 2: Networking Standards and the OSI Model Networking Standards Organizations: -standards are documented agreements which contain the technical specification that stipulate how a particular product or service should be designed or performed -industries use standards to ensue that products, processes and services suit their purpose -standards are very important in the world of networking; without standards it would be very difficult to design a network because you could not be certain that software or hardware from different manufactures would work together • Example: if one manufacture designed a network cable 1cm wide and another manufacturer designed a wall plate with a 08cm wide opening, you would not be able to insert the plus into the wall plate -standards define the “minimum” acceptable performance of a product or service not the ideal ANSI: -ANSI (American National Standards Institute) is an organization composed of thousands of representatives from industry and government who together determine standards for the electronics industry and other field (chemical and nuclear engineering, health and safety, construction) -ANSI also represents the US in setting international standards EIA and TIA: -EIA (Electronic Industries Alliance) is a trade organization composed of representatives from electronics manufacturing firms across the US -EIA helps ANSI write standards and lobbies for legislation favorable to the growth of the computer and electronics industries -TIA (Telecommunications Industry Association) focuses on standards for information technology, wireless, satellite, fiber optics and telephone equipment IEEE: -IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) is an international society composed of engineering professionals -goal is to promote development and education in the electrical engineering and computer science fields -it establishes its own standards for electronics and computer th Wednesday September 12 , 2012 industries and contributes to the work of other standards setting bodies such as ANSI ISO: -ISO (International Organization for Standardization) is a collection of standards organizations representing 162 countries -goal is to establish international technology standards to facilitate global exchange of information and barrier-free trade -ISO is a Greek work for equal; this conveys the organizations dedication to standards -ISO’s authority also applies to fields of textiles, packaging, distribution of goods, energy production and utilization, shipbuilding and banking and financial services ITU: -ITU (International Telecommunication Union) is a specialized agency that regulates international telecommunications, including radio and TV frequencies, satellite and telephone specifications, networking infrastructure and tariffs ISOS: -ISOS (Internet Society) is a society that helps to establish technical standards for the Internet -some of the concerns include the rapid growth of the Internet and keeping it accessible, information security and the need for stable addressing services and open standards across the Internet The OSI Model: -model that is used to describe network communication is called the OSI (Open System Interconnection) model -this model divides network communications into seven layers: Physical, Data Link, Network, Transport, Session, Presentation and Application -while performing those services, the protocols also interact with protocols in the layers directly above and below -protocols are rules by which computers communicate; it is simply a set of instructions written by a programmer to perform a function or group of functions -the OSI model is a representation of what happens between two nodes communicating on a network -OSI model is discussed from highest to lowest, beginning with Application layer where the flow of information is initiated Wednesday September 12 , 2012 Application Layer: -provides interface between software applications and a network for interpreting applications requests and requirments th -the 7 layer of the OSI model -does not include software programs such as Microsoft Word or Firefox, instead it facilitates communication between programs and lower-layer network services -services at this layer allow to enable the network to interpret a programs request and the program to interpret data sent from the network -For Example: • When you choose to open a Web page on Firefox, an application layer protocol called HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) formats and sends your request from your client browser to the server, it also then formats and sends the Web server’s response back to your client browser • Suppose you want to view the Library of Congress’s Website, you type in in Firefox and press enter  At this point, the Firefox’s API (application programming interface; a set of routines that make up part of the software) transfers your request to the HTTP protocol  HTTP prompts lower-layer protocols to establish a connection between your computer and the Web server  HTTP formats your request for the Web page and sends the request to the Web server one part of the request includes a command that begins with “GET” and tells the server what page you want to retrieve other part of the request indicates what version of HTTP you’re using, what types of graphics and what language your browser can accept, and what browser version your using  After receiving your computers HTTP request, the Web server for the website responds, its response includes the text and graphics that make you the web page and the content contained in the page, how many pages etc. if the web page is unavailable, the host will send an HTTP response containing an error message such as “Error 404- File Not Found”  After receiving the Web servers response, your workstation uses HTTP to interpret this response so that Firefox can present the web page in a format that you will recognize (with
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