Chapter 1.docx

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Department
Information Technology Management
Course
ITM 305
Professor
Franklyn Prescod
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 1 Information Systems are systems that process data into information. They are also products that must satisfy their consumers and be developed by following a methodology that ensures the best quality and use of resources. Information system – input, output, processing, storage, security, communication. Information Automation – a nonhuman device can apply information logic to data through a set of stored instructions or a “program”. Commoditization – an increasing consequence, packaging information logic into software has allowed information systems and applications to become market products. Commercial products three basic traits:  They must satisfy certain requirements or take advantage of opportunities  They are human artifacts and must be built  Their development must follow a methodology that helps to lower cost, raise quality and make success more likely. -An information system is not concerned with every kind of information, but only those that can be obtained by processing data through a system. It is not any system, but an open system that accepts input, produces output, and has understandable logic. Information is an organized collection of data that allows its recipient to:  Gain knowledge,  Draw meaning,  Arrive at conclusions, or  Execute a set of actions to reach an objective Information has three main constituents: data, purpose, and logical organization  Data are the raw materials for information. They are facts or assumptions  Goal - Information must have a purpose, a meaning that it wants to impart or a goal that it wants to achieve. Information is pointless if it lacks an understandable purpose. Information must follow a logic in order to arrive from data to meaning.  Logic - Information uses data selectively – the data must relate to the purpose. -Information is only as valid as the logic that produces it – if the logic is wrong, distorted, or incomplete, the resulting knowledge will be wrong distorted or incomplete as well. -Both information and data can be delivered by sound, pictures, or multimedia in which we call symbols. -Data and information are both hierarchical – some information at one level may be used as data in a higher level depending on the purpose. System boundary contains manual parts as well as automated parts while system automation only contains the automated parts. System – a collection of elements that work together to perform a task. System: elements, interrelationships, organization, and the identifiable whole  Elements of system: The constituent elements of a system can be real objects, virtual objects, concepts, or a combination of all. These constituent elements are also called components and may consist of other elements or components by itself.  Interrelated Elements: An element in a system must interact with at least one other element and the interactions must, directly or indirectly, link all elements.  Organization: elements of a system must have a formal structure. Must have coordination and direction of activities, it is not a system without a formal structure.  Subsystem: An element within a system can be a system in its own right. Any system can be a subsystem of a bigger system.  Open and Closed Systems: o A perfect open system: accepts input, logic of its internal workings can be understood and/or changed, can chang
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