Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, sixth edition 1-1
Chapter 1 – From Beginning to End:An Overview of Systems
Analysis and Design
Solutions to End-of-Chapter Problems
1. What is the difference between an information system and a computer application?
Usually a computer application is a single computer program that may or may not be connected to a
database. An information system is normally multiple computer programs that are connected to a
database and thus provide as output various types and quantities of information.
2. What is the purpose of systems analysis? Why is it important?
The purpose of systems analysis is to enable the system developer to understand the user's
requirements. Without a good analysis of the user's needs and requirements the new system will be
inadequate in its solution or erroneous in its implementation.
3. What is the difference between systems analysis and systems design?
Systems analysis is to determine the “what” the new system should do. It is discovery and
understanding. Systems design is to determine “how” the new system should be built. It is structure
4. What is a project?
Aproject is a planned undertaking that has a beginning and an end and which usually produces some
predefined result. It is often managed with a schedule or list of required activities.
5. What are the six core processes for software systems development?
1. Identify the problem. 2. Plan and monitor the project. 3. Discover and understand the requirements.
4. Design the system components. 5. Build, test, integrate the system components. 6. Finalize testing
and deploy the solution.
6. What is meant byAgile Development?
Agile development is a philosophy of systems development that emphasizes flexibility to handle
changing requirements during the development project.
7. What is the purpose of a System Vision Document?
The System Vision Document is a brief statement which describes the overall objective of the new
system. Its purpose is to provide basic information about the need and solution approach to assist the
client in deciding whether to approve a development project.
8. What is the difference between a system and a subsystem?
Asystem usually consists of a complete solution that functions by itself. Asubsystem is an identifiable
and partitioned portion of the system.Asubsystem usually is not an independent entity but functions
within the context of the entire system. Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, sixth edition 1-2
9. What is the purpose of a Work Breakdown Structure?
The purpose of a Work Breakdown Structure is to identify all the tasks, e.g. the work, that must be
accomplished for a project.
10. What are the components of a Work Breakdown Structure? What does it show?
It usually contains a list of all the tasks that must be done, along with an estimate of how much work
each task will require. It provides a comprehensive list of the work to be done. It is the basis for
building a project schedule.
11. What information is provided by use cases or a use case diagram?
Use cases, either in a list format or a diagram format, show all of the user functions that the new system
12. What information is provided by a class diagram?
Aclass diagram identifies all of the “things” that must be remembered and tracked by the new system.
In essence the class diagram will be used to design and build the database for the new system.
13. How do a use case diagram and a class diagram drive the system development process?
The use case diagram defines the processes (e.g. functions) of the new system and the class diagram
defines the data of the new system. Each system consists of processes and information, so these two
diagrams define what must be done.
14. What is another way to describe an activity diagram? What does it show?
An activity diagram is also a “workflow” diagram. It shows the flow of steps that a user, working with
a system, follows to complete a business process or use case.
15. How does an activity diagram help in user-interface design?
An activity diagram shows the interactions between a user and the system. Those interactions must be
supported by the user interface.
16. What is the purpose of architectural design?
Architectural design is used to design the overall structure of the new system. It defines the major
components of the new system and how they relate to each other.
17. What new information is provided in a design class diagram (more than a class diagram)?
Adesign class diagram is an extension of a class diagram and it shows how the attributes become data
fields with type information. It also identifies the methods of a class. It also shows which classes have
visibility to other classes to access their methods.
18. What are the steps of system testing?
System testing consists of 1. create the test data, 2. conduct the tests, 3. Identify and document the
errors, 4. Fix the errors. This process repeats until the number of errors is minimal or acceptable.
19. What is the purpose of user acceptance testing?
User acceptance testing is to allow the users to verify that the system performs in a manner that does in
fact solve the business problem. The system should not only provide correct answers, but it should
provide answers for all the issues identified during analysis. Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, sixth edition 1-3
20. Why is it a good practice to divide a project into separate iterations?
Separate iterations allow the project to be partitioned into smaller chunks of work that can be managed
and controlled better. It also provides intermediate deliverables so that both the project team and the
users can ascertain if the new system is going to solve the businss problems.
21. What should be the objective or result of an iteration?
The objective of an iteration should be to produce a portion of the solution system. Usually this means
that some working piece of the system is design, coded, and tested. Sometimes it also allows portions
of the final solution to be deployed early.
Problems and Exercises
None for Chapter 1.
Solutions to End-of-Chapter Cases
Chapter Case: Keeping Track of Your Geocaching Outings Wayne's Geocaching System
Table of Contents
Assignment D0: System Vision Document
Assignment D1: Work Breakdown Structure
Assignment D2: Use case and Class diagrams
Assignment D3: Workflow diagram and screen layout
Assignment D4: Database design and system structure
Assignment D5: Programming approach
Assignment D6: Final testing and deployment issues Wayne's Geocaching System
Assignment D0-1: System Vision Document
Wayne Johansen has become an active fan of geocaching and would like to keep track of all of his
geocaching activities. Rather than use one of the free or commercial web sites, he would like to have
his own geocaching system on his own computer. The system will need to have to support several
different geocaching types of activities, including listing interesting geocaches and trips that Wayne
would like to do, also geocaches that he has found and trips he has taken. In addition, since Wayne also
would like to create his own geocaches, he would like to be able to create and describe his own
geocaches and track those that he has posted for public use.
This system is essentially a information tracking system. It will need its own database to keep track of
all of the information about his activities and his geocaches. For this first version, since he did not
know a lot about computers, he decided it would be best just to have a system built to run on his laptop.
The new system should do the following:
Keep track of interesting geocach locations that have not been located yet
Keep track of geocaches that have been located
Record detailed and ancillary information about located geocaches
Keep track of new geocaches that are being created by Wayne
Keep track of posted geocaches that Wayne has posted to geocaching sites
Provide summary information (reports) about Wayne geocache activities
This system should provide the following benefits to Wayne:
Enable Wayne to easily track all of his geocaching trips and find
Enable Wayne to easily create and post new geocaches
Allow Wayne to share his geocaching interests with other friends
Allow Wayne to update his geocaching information while traveling with his lap