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Information Technology Management
ITM 305
Junlian Xiang

Monday May 30 , 2012 Chapter 1 Introduction of Information Systems Information Systems: -information systems are systems that process data into information -we can view an information system from its various perspectives;  Goals  Process  Components -information systems are like products therefore they must satisfy their consumers and be developed by a methodology -to develop a modern information system, we must start with a clear understanding that an information system is primarily a commercial product  All products such as houses, cars, computers might be built to satisfy demands or wishes -developing information systems and software applications involve highly abstract concepts that have very concrete outcomes and sometimes very serious consequences -components of information systems:  Data as input  Statement and balances as output  Arithmetic as the application of logic (processing)  Storage or data management  Security to prevent unauthorized access  Communication through oral and written symbols -information automation has changed the reach and role of information systems within the human civilization  Means that nonhuman device can apply information logic to data through a set of stored instructions or a “program”  Which means information processing can become more capital-intensive and less labour-intensive -by packing information logic into software, automation has allowed information systems and applications to become market products -all commercial products have 3 basic traits: 1. Must satisfy certain requirements or take advantage of opportunities 2. They are human artifacts, must be built 3. Their development must follow a methodology that helps to lower costs and raise quality -development of a product must follow a methodology however not all products need to have the same methodology Introducing Information Systems: -an information system is not concerned with every kind of information but only those that can be obtained by processing data through a system; it is not any system but an open system that accepts input, produces output and has understandable logic -information systems requires an information technology but information technology is not the same as information system Monday May 30 , 2012 Information: -information is an organized collection of data that allows its recipient to gain, knowledge, draw meaning and arrive at conclusions or execute a set of actions to reach an objective -information covers a vast ground, such as;  News report in the paper, on radio or TV  Itinerary of your upcoming trip  Year-end balance sheet of a company  Business report  Fire alarm  Bank statement  Book on system analysis and design -these items are all information, regardless of whether the data consists of words, sounds, numbers, images or symbols -just like alarms and traffic signals are designed to communicate their intentions immediately -news reports, books and documentaries offer a large amount of data within a narrative composed of numerous logical packages (sentences, paragraphs, dialogues etc) -information has 3 main constituents:  Data  Purpose  Logical organization Data: -are the building blocks of information -are the facts or assumptions that are structured within a logical framework to convey information -data are the raw materials for information -Examples of data:  Television Report – moving imagines, dialog, music and commentary  Newspaper Report – titles, subtitles, words, paragraph, quotations and pictures  No Entry! – red outline of a circle bisected by a red line  Patient Profile – weight, height, sugar level, age, symptoms etc -it is often said that data is meaningless themselves until it is turned into information; this is true in many cases especially when data consists of numbers -relationship between data and information is usually multileveled and subtle  A deposit to your bank account is meaningless itself, it must be placed in the context of other data to present the monthly activity and share your bank account Goal: -information has an objective -any information must have a purpose, it wants to impart or achieve a goal -some goals are simple, some are ambitious and some are open to multiple interpretations -Example:  Television Report: communicates (tries to communicate) want, when, where, how, and (perhaps) way of an event to its audience -if the information lacks an understandable purpose, we call it “pointless” Monday May 30 , 2012 Logic: -objective
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