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Canada (161,663)
ITM 305 (71)
Jim Tam (16)
Chapter 3

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Department
Information Technology Management
Course
ITM 305
Professor
Jim Tam
Semester
Fall

Description
ITM305 – Chapter 3 Requirements Determination Introduction  The systems development process transforms the existing system into the proposed (to be) system  The single most critical step of the entire SDLC  Changes can be made easily in this stage  Most (>50%) system failures are due to problems w/ requirements  The iterative process of OOSAD is effective because: o Small batches of requirements can be identified and implemented incrementally o The system will evolve over time Requirements Determination  Purpose: to convert high level business requirements (from the system request) into detailed requirements that can be used as inputs for creating models  What is a requirement? o A statement of what the system must do or a characteristic must have o Will later evolve into a technical description of how the system will be implemented  Types: o Functional: relates to a process or data o Non-functional: relates to performance or usability Defining a Requirement  Functional & non-functional requirements listed in outline format  May be prioritized  Provides information needed in subsequent workflows  Defines scope of the system Requirements Definition  Business & IT personnel need to collaborate  Strategies for effective results: o Business Process Analysis (BPA) o Business Process Improvement (BPI) o Business Process Reengineering (BPR) Determining Requirements  Requirements are best determined by systems analysis and business people together  Strategies for analyzing the requirements o Business Process Analysis (BPA) o Business Process Improvement (BPI) o Business Process Reengineering (BPR)  Techniques for identifying requirements o Interviews, questionnaires and/or observation o Joint application development (JAD) o Document analysis Creating a Requirements Definition  Determine the types of functional and non-functional requirements applicable to the project  Use requirements-gathering techniques to collect details  Analysts work with users to verify, change and prioritize each requirement  Continue this process through analysis workflow, but be careful of scope creep  Requirements that met a need but are not within the current scope can be added to a list of future enhancements Problems in Requirements Determination  Analyst may not have access to the correct users  Requirements specifications may be inadequate  Some requirements may not be known in the beginning  Verifying and validating requirements can be difficult Requirements Analysis Strategies  Business Process Automation (BPA) o Least amount of change to the current system o Use computer technology to automate some portions  Business Process Improvement (BPI) o Moderate amount of change is required o Designed to improve efficiency of the current system  Business Process Reengineering (BPR) o Most amount of change – a complete makeover o Focus is on the to-be system – little time spent on the current system Business Process Automation  Techniques o Problem analysis  Ask users to identify problems w/ current system  Ask users how they would solve these problems  Good for improving efficiency or ease-of-use o Root cause analysis  Focus is on the cause of a problem, not its solution  Create a prioritized list of problems  Try determine their causes  Once the causes are known, solutions can be developed Business Process Improvement  Techniques: o Duration analysis  Determine the time required to complete each step in business process  Compare this to the total time required for the entire process  Large differences suggest problems that might be solved by:  Activity-based costing – same as duration analysis but applied costs  Informal benchmarking – analyzes similar processes in other successful organizations Business Process Reengineering  Institutes maximum change: “out with the old and in with the new”  Techniques: o Outcome analysis – what does the customer want in the end? o Technology analysis – apply new technologies to business processes & identify benefits o Activity elimination – eliminate each activity
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