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ITM 305 (71)
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Chapter 4

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Ryerson University
Information Technology Management
ITM 305
Jim Tam

ITM305 – Chapter 4 Business Process and Functional Modeling Introduction  Turning the requirements into functional models: o Models are logical; i.e. independent of how they are implemented (manual/computerized) o Develop use-cases from the requirements  Use-case: how a system interacts w/ its environment  Includes a diagram and a description to depict the discrete activities that the users perform o Develop activity diagrams from the use-cases  These models the business processes or how a business operates  Used to illustrate movement of objects (data) b/w activities Business Process Identification with Use-Cases  Elements of Use-Case Diagrams o Actors: users or other interacting systems o Associations: lines to connect actors and use –cases o Interactions, inclusions, extensions or generalizations  Use-case: a major process in the system that gives a benefit to users  Subject boundary: a named box that depicts the scope of the system Identifying the Major Use Cases  Review the requirements definition  Identify the subject’s boundaries  Identify the primary actors and their goals  Identify the business processes and major use-cases  Carefully review the current set of use-cases o Split or combine some to create the right size o Identify additional use-cases Create a Use-Case Diagram  Place & draw the use-cases  Place & draw the actors  Draw the subject boundary  Add the associations  Ex. library circulation system Business Process Modeling with Activity Diagrams  Action or Activity o Represents action or set of actions  Control Flow o Shows sequence of execution  Initial Node o The beginning of a set of actions  Final Node o Stops all flows in an activity  Decision Node o Represents a test condition Elements of an Activity Diagram  Actions & Activities o Something performed for some specific business reason o Named with a verb and a noun (ex. Get Patient Info) o Activities can be further sub-divided; actions cannot  Object Nodes: represent the flow of info from one activity to another  Control Flows: model execution paths  Object Flows: model the flow ob objects  Control Nodes: 7 types o Initial node: the beginning of the set of actions/activities o Final-activity node: stops all actions/activities o Final-flow node: stops one execution path but allows others to continue o Decision node: represents a test to determine which path to use to continue (based on a guard condition) o Merge node: rejoins mutually exclusive execution paths o Fork node: separates a single execution path into one or more parallel paths o Join node: rejoins parallel executions paths  Activity Diagram Symbols  Swimlanes o Used to assign responsibility to objects/individuals who actually perform the activity o Represents a separation of roles among objects o Can be drawn horizontally/vertically Guidelines for Activity Diagrams  Set the scope of the activity being modeled  Identify the activities; connect them w/ flows  Identify any decisions that must be made  Identify potential parallelism in the process  Draw the activity diagram Creating Activity Diagrams  Choose a business process identified previously o Review the requirements definition and use-case diagram o Review other documentation collected thus far  Identify the set of activities used in business process  Identify control flows and nodes  Identify the object flows and nodes  Lay out & draw the diagram (minimizing crossing lines) Business Process Documentation w/ Use Cases and Use-Case Descriptions Use Cases  The primary driver for all UML diagramming techniques  Depicts activities performed by users  Describe basic functions
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