ITM 100 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Logistics, Collaborative Software, Customer Relationship Management

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Chapter 4 – Enterprise Systems
The value chain
Value chain is a connected series of activities, each of which adds value or supports the
addition of value to the firms goods or services
5 main parts of value chain are
oInbound logistics
Receiving and warehousing raw materials needed to create a product or
service
oOperations
Transform the raw materials into the final product
oOutbound logistics
Activities needed to get the finished product to the customer like
packaging
oMarketing and sales
Activities that are convincing a buyer to purchase a product
oService activities
Maintain and improve the products value such as customer support,
warranty etc
Value chain can be organized in to primary and secondary activities
Primary activities creates business value for the company and its customers
Companies also require support activities, these are activities a company does to support
the creation of business value by the primary activities
4 critical support activities
oFirm infrastructure (administration)
oTechnology development
oHR management
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oProcurement
Value chain is also useful for finding companies main processes and the activities and
capabilities that it can use to have a competitive advantage over its competitors
Information systems that support business activities
Common IS are
oFunctional information systems (FIS)
oWorkflow management systems (WMS)
oTransaction processing systems (TPS)
oManagement information and document management systems (MIS) (DMS)
oKnowledgeable management systems (KMS)
oDecision support systems (DSS)
oSupply chain management (SCM)
oEnterprise resource planning (ERP)
FIS focuses on activities of the functional dept to improve its efficiency and effectiveness,
for example accounting information system focuses on automating and informating
accounting activities (pg 123 more FIS)
WMS supports activities that several dept of a company may carry out, for example
workflow in a typical online product order (pg 124)
oHas benefits such as less delayed work which improves efficiency
oManagers can focus more time on business decisions rather than on tracking work
TPS allows transaction and activities and capture the key data created by the transaction
oTransaction is an exchange of goods or services between 2 or more parties like
businesses that creates a relationship between the parties, for example customer
using a banks ATM to withdraw money
oTransaction has 4 characteristics known as ACID (atomicity, consistency,
isolation, durability) (pg 125)
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MIS stores processed transaction data as reports for managers
oMIS shows 3 types of reports
Periodic reports company’s annual financial statements updated or
created after a specific time period
Exception reports monitors when and why exceptions occur of key
values
Demand reports created based on user requests
oExecutive information systems (EIS) designed to provide summary information
about business performance to managers
DMS enters, tracks, routes and processes many documents used in a company even the
reports under MIS
oCan create the documents electronically
oCan convert documents to electronic form using imaging technology (scanners)
oUsed to maintain records and documents efficiently so that no paper documents
required
KMS is how the company recognizes, creates, manages and shares knowledge
oTo support tacit knowledge (peoples own knowledge from learning) KMS relies
on collaborative software such as groupware
oGroupware is a simple communication tool like email allows communication
between team members to share data and information
oEffective KM program can help business professionals make the value chain more
efficient which might improve customer service and increase revenues as the
company gets the products out to the market faster
DSS help businesses use communications technologies, knowledge and models to
organize and access data to perform decision-making activities
o5 types of DSS but model-driven DSS make the most significant contribution to
decision making
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Document Summary

The value chain: value chain is a connected series of activities, each of which adds value or supports the addition of value to the firm"s goods or services. 5 main parts of value chain are: inbound logistics.  receiving and warehousing raw materials needed to create a product or service: operations.  transform the raw materials into the final product: outbound logistics.  activities needed to get the finished product to the customer like packaging: marketing and sales.  activities that are convincing a buyer to purchase a product: service activities.  periodic reports company"s annual financial statements updated or created after a specific time period.  exception reports monitors when and why exceptions occur of key values.  financial models use financial data to support financial decision making.  statistical models use statistics and probability to describe or predict possible scenarios.

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