Monday September 20th, 2010
Chapter 2
Technology Essentials
Information Technology:
-IT helps to obtain, organize, analyze and store data and information
-IT can provide entertainment
-IT can help do business
-IT can help make decisions
-IT can help do things with more efficiency and with approximately zero error ….depending on design
-Example:
Grocery store uses IT to allow you to purchase items quickly
A bank relies on IT to provide you with ATM access
You carry IT with you:
Cell phones
PDA
MP3 player
Components of IT:
-All IT devices are limited to the following capabilities:
Accepting and storing data and information
Performing mathematical calculations
Applying logic to make decisions
Retrieving, displaying, and sending information
Consistently repeating the above actions many times
-IT devices combine these capabilities in a number of ways to help you work with the information more
efficiently and effectively
Information Technology Categories:
-Hardware: The electronic and mechanical components you can see and touch
-Software: The set of instructions that direct the hardware
-Network technology: Increases the power of IT by allowing the sharing of resources, including
hardware, software, and information
Hardware Categories:
-Processing: Directs execution of instructions and the transformation of data
transistors (electronic switches 0 or 1)
microprocessors are made up of transistors
microprocessors combine to make a CPU
clock speed is measured in MHz, GHz
-Memory: Temporarily stores data and instructions before and after processing
Input: Provides the interface used for data entry into a device
-Output: Provides the interface to retrieve information from a device
-Storage: Stores data, information, and instructions for the long term
-Communications: Connects one IT device to another
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Monday September 20th, 2010
Computer Type:
1. Supercomputer:
Relative Processing Power: largest and fastest
Purpose: Performs processor intensive computations using parallel processing
2. Mainframe:
Relative Processing Power: large
Purpose: Carries out many of the organizational processing needs using high-speed
processing chips and large amounts of memory
3. Server Farms:
Relative Processing Power: Medium
Purpose: Allows multiple servers to handle network processing activities
4. Personal Computer:
Relative Processing Power: Small to Medium
Purpose: Enables users to carry out processing tasks needed to perform their job;
usually networked together
5. Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) / Smartphone’s:
Relative Processing Power: very small
Purpose: Provides users with portable computing power; often used to communicate
with PC or other users
6. Embedded Processers:
Relative Processing Power: extremely small
Purpose: Provides low-scale processing and/or identification; embedded in appliances
and products
Memory:
-There are two types of memory: long-term memory (ROM) and short-term memory (RAM)
-Both types of memory are stored on memory chips
-Both are measured in number of bytes stored:
Thousands (kilobytesKB)
Millions (megabytesMB
Billions (gigabytesGB)
Read Only Memory (ROM):
-Read Only Memory (ROM) contains instructions that are not meant to be changed, or changed
infrequently
-ROM is present in most IT devices
-In computers, ROM holds instructions used to control the start-up process
-There are far fewer ROM chips than RAM chips in a computer
Random Access Memory:
-Random Access Memory (RAM) is the predominant form of memory in a computer
-The CPU can access any item stored in RAM directly (randomly)
-RAM is temporary memory, so anything in RAM is lost when the computer is shut down
-Increasing RAM capacity is the easiest way to increase a computer’s effectiveness
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