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Chapter 6

ITM 102 Chapter Notes - Chapter 6: Database, Tacit Knowledge, Knowledge Worker


Department
Information Technology Management
Course Code
ITM 102
Professor
David Atkinson
Chapter
6

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CHAPTER 6 WHAT ARE DATA, INFORMATION, AND
KNOWLEDGE?
Need data and information when we want it
Data in different forms (i.e. number, text, video, audio) and organized in different
ways (i.e. tables, reports, and graphs)
THE DATA-INFORMATION-KNOWLEDGE CONTINUUM
Data: raw unorganized facts, numbers, pictures, and so on
Information: data that have been organized and are useful to a person
Knowledge: created when a person combines experience and judgement with
information
How business people create and add value to organization
Wisdom: adds insight and ethics to the experience and professional judgement
inherent in knowledge
Costs and complexity of tasks to be accomplished increases as you move from
pyramid from data to information to knowledge to wisdom
Although technology is a key enabler (assist with collecting, collating, and
analyzing data and information), still up to humans to take this data and
information and turn it into knowledge and wisdom
LIFELONG KNOWLEDGE CREATION
Two types of knowledge are complementary halves of lifelong knowledge
Explicit knowledge: knowledge that is readily codified (i.e. knowledge in
textbook)
Tacit knowledge: knowledge gain through experience, insight, and
discovery
KNOWLEDGE WORK ACTIVITIES
Knowledge work involves the discovery, analysis, transformation, synthesis, and
communication of data, information and knowledge
DISCOVERY: FINDING DATA, INFORMATION, OR KNOWLEDGE
Discover: finding of data, information and knowledge relevant to a
task, problem, issue, or opportunity (the context)
Begin with an idea of what to look for, then retrieve relevant data from
various sources and assess it value to the decision at hand
ANALYSIS: INVESTIGATING AND EXAMINING THE AVAILABLE
DATA, INFORMATION, AND KNOWLEDGE
Analysis: breaking down the whole into more discrete parts to better
understand how it works
oProcess mapping, quality assurance, or performance testing
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Once analysis is complete, put it into appropriate organizational
context and make a decision or recommendation
Can extend to include consideration of unintended consequences,
ethical constraints, or risks so that you safely and quickly put
knowledge to use to create sustainable CA demonstrates wisdom
Two IT that can help answer questions about underlying patterns and
correlations across large amounts of data are data warehouses and
data mining
TRANSFORMATION: ORGANIZING DISCOVERY RESULTS
Transformation: knowledge work that requires you to use the results
of your analysis to deepen your understanding of data and information
IT can help transform data regardless of who did the discovery and
analysis work
Transforming data into useful forms through use of spreadsheet, begin
to make sense of events and issues
SYNTHESIS: THE SUM OF THE PARTS
Synthesis: allows you to interpret trends or patterns that seem to
explain the past and present, and may suggest courses of action likely
to favourably influence the future
Bring information together; knowing which parts, when combined,
will create higher total value than value of the parts themselves
Systems can provide summary, but only people have the ability
to put this information into proper context and draw
conclusions from it
COMMUNICATION: SHARING ANALYSIS WITH OTHERS
Communication: ability to share analyses, ideas, and solutions with
others
Uses IS and IT to communicate
Steps referred to as work flows and the outcome of efforts as work product
Knowledge work activities are only part of the larger picture of a rational decision-
making and problem-solving process
DATABASES: THE PRIMARY DATA STORAGE FOR
ORGANIZATIONS
Database: consists of interrelated data that are stored in files and organized so
computer programs can quickly and easily access specific pieces of data
Database management system (DBMS): collection of software that allows users
to create and work with a database
Database and DBMS make up a database system
Database administrators (DBA) create and manage the database
THE DATA HIERARCHY
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