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Chapter 6

ITM 102 Chapter Notes - Chapter 6: Data Mining, Sql, Data Dictionary

Information Technology Management
Course Code
ITM 102
Ross Mc Naughton

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Chapter 6
Task Cost + Complexity
-increase as you move up the pyramid
Computers: data, information; Humans: knowledge, wisdom
Data: raw, unorganized facts, #s, pictures
Information: data that have been organized and are useful to the person
Knowledge: when a person combines experience and judgement with info
Wisdom: adds insight and ethics to the experience and professional judgement inherent in
knowledge –allows leaders to perceive underlying meaning/nuances of a business
situation + ensures knowledge from all relevant perspective, disciplines, and sources is
considered in final decision
IT: helps collect, collate, analyze data/info
Lifelong knowledge creation
Explicit knowledge: readily codified (textbook, knowledge about website)
Tacit knowledge: gained through experience, insight, discovery (lessons learned)
Knowledge Work Activities
-involves discovery, analysis, transformation, synthesis, communication of data, info,
knowledge (recommending investment portfolio to clients)
Discovery: finding of data/info/knowledge relevant to a task, problem, issue, opportunity
-IT: Internet, intranet
Analysis: investigating, examining data/info/knowledge -breaking down the whole into
more discrete parts to better understand how it works; “What is happening and why?”
-Process Mapping: analyzing business process
-Quality Assurance: analyzing product quality
-Performance Testing: assessing fitness/ standards
-IT: Data Warehouses and Data Mining
Transformation: use results of analysis to deepen understanding of data and info-
organizing discovery results
-IT: spreadsheets, database software for organizing/storing info
Synthesis: interpret trends/patterns that seem to explain past +present -sum of the parts
-which parts, when combined will create higher value than the value of parts themselves
IT: summarizes info -but only people can put info into proper context
Communication: sharing analysis/ideas/solutions with others
IT: organize/disseminate info through virtual team with Inspiration, Viso, Groove,
GotoMeeting , email, instant messaging, PowerPoint
Examples of Knowledge Work Activities
Knowledge Work Activity Manager’s Request IT Tools/ Activities
Discovery Find a company’s/
competitors’ weekly sales
Use data from check-
out/point-of-sale (POS)
terminals, search tools
(Google), Web searching
Analysis Compare sales data for the
1st week of May to similar
Import data into database/ use
spreadsheet, use features/tools
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data from company from
previous 2 months
to organize data, find data
from previous months
Transformation Identify trends in data by
week/month/day –indicate
how company results
compare with
Use data analysis tool to
examine data from different
aspects –consider what data
revealed +combine it with
knowledge of the company’s
goals to add focus to the
analysis –search Web for
other analyses of
–integrate it with your
interpretation of sales data
Synthesis Given your analysis of
company’s relative
success/failure, suggest
ways to capitalize on
strengths/ overcome
Obtain feedback about
specific company
products/services –arrange
brief Web meeting with top
sales associates
Communication Present findings +
suggestions to management
Import spreadsheet data into
presentation software –add
insights gained from Web
Databases: primary data storage for organizations
-consists of interrelated data that are stored in flues and organized so that computer
programs can quickly/easily access specific data (Microsoft, Oracle, IBM)
Database management system (DBMS): collection of software that allows users to create
+work with database –controls access to data stored in database
Database Administrators (DBA): people who create/manage database
Data hierarchy: used to organize data in a database
*Lower level: stores 1 (on) or 0 (off) data
ASCII (8 bits), Unicode (16 bits): encoding schemes
Field: combination of characters representing data item *attributes
Records: collection of fields, data about single instance (Gender, Name for one customer)
Table/ File: records, represented by rows of the table (Gender, Name for all customers)
*Higher level: compiles organized files into database
Advantages of using a Database System (consists of database +DBMS):
-organization of data is independent of other software apps -allows apps to access data in
standard manner
-organization of data reduces data redundancy -DBMS may need to store only one record
of data for a particular product
-DBMS can maintain quality of data, handle security, synch access by simultaneous users
-database systems improve data access, allow different views of data for users, report
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