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Chapter 6

ITM 102 Chapter Notes - Chapter 6: Data Mining, Sql, Data Dictionary


Department
Information Technology Management
Course Code
ITM 102
Professor
Ross Mc Naughton
Chapter
6

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Chapter 6
Task Cost + Complexity
-increase as you move up the pyramid
Computers: data, information; Humans: knowledge, wisdom
Data: raw, unorganized facts, #s, pictures
Information: data that have been organized and are useful to the person
Knowledge: when a person combines experience and judgement with info
Wisdom: adds insight and ethics to the experience and professional judgement inherent in
knowledge –allows leaders to perceive underlying meaning/nuances of a business
situation + ensures knowledge from all relevant perspective, disciplines, and sources is
considered in final decision
IT: helps collect, collate, analyze data/info
Lifelong knowledge creation
Explicit knowledge: readily codified (textbook, knowledge about website)
Tacit knowledge: gained through experience, insight, discovery (lessons learned)
Knowledge Work Activities
-involves discovery, analysis, transformation, synthesis, communication of data, info,
knowledge (recommending investment portfolio to clients)
Discovery: finding of data/info/knowledge relevant to a task, problem, issue, opportunity
(context)
-IT: Internet, intranet
Analysis: investigating, examining data/info/knowledge -breaking down the whole into
more discrete parts to better understand how it works; “What is happening and why?”
-Process Mapping: analyzing business process
-Quality Assurance: analyzing product quality
-Performance Testing: assessing fitness/ standards
-IT: Data Warehouses and Data Mining
Transformation: use results of analysis to deepen understanding of data and info-
organizing discovery results
-IT: spreadsheets, database software for organizing/storing info
Synthesis: interpret trends/patterns that seem to explain past +present -sum of the parts
-which parts, when combined will create higher value than the value of parts themselves
IT: summarizes info -but only people can put info into proper context
Communication: sharing analysis/ideas/solutions with others
IT: organize/disseminate info through virtual team with Inspiration, Viso, Groove,
GotoMeeting , email, instant messaging, PowerPoint
Examples of Knowledge Work Activities
Knowledge Work Activity Manager’s Request IT Tools/ Activities
Discovery Find a company’s/
competitors’ weekly sales
data
Use data from check-
out/point-of-sale (POS)
terminals, search tools
(Google), Web searching
Analysis Compare sales data for the
1st week of May to similar
Import data into database/ use
spreadsheet, use features/tools
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data from company from
previous 2 months
to organize data, find data
from previous months
Transformation Identify trends in data by
week/month/day –indicate
how company results
compare with
competition/industry
Use data analysis tool to
examine data from different
aspects –consider what data
revealed +combine it with
knowledge of the company’s
goals to add focus to the
analysis –search Web for
other analyses of
company/industry/competitors
–integrate it with your
interpretation of sales data
Synthesis Given your analysis of
company’s relative
success/failure, suggest
ways to capitalize on
strengths/ overcome
weakness
Obtain feedback about
specific company
products/services –arrange
brief Web meeting with top
sales associates
Communication Present findings +
suggestions to management
Import spreadsheet data into
presentation software –add
insights gained from Web
meeting
Databases: primary data storage for organizations
-consists of interrelated data that are stored in flues and organized so that computer
programs can quickly/easily access specific data (Microsoft, Oracle, IBM)
Database management system (DBMS): collection of software that allows users to create
+work with database –controls access to data stored in database
Database Administrators (DBA): people who create/manage database
Data hierarchy: used to organize data in a database
*Lower level: stores 1 (on) or 0 (off) data
ASCII (8 bits), Unicode (16 bits): encoding schemes
Field: combination of characters representing data item *attributes
Records: collection of fields, data about single instance (Gender, Name for one customer)
Table/ File: records, represented by rows of the table (Gender, Name for all customers)
*Higher level: compiles organized files into database
Advantages of using a Database System (consists of database +DBMS):
-organization of data is independent of other software apps -allows apps to access data in
standard manner
-organization of data reduces data redundancy -DBMS may need to store only one record
of data for a particular product
-DBMS can maintain quality of data, handle security, synch access by simultaneous users
-database systems improve data access, allow different views of data for users, report
generation
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