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Chapter 4

ITM 207 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: World Intellectual Property Organization, Intangible Property, Information System


Department
Information Technology Management
Course Code
ITM 207
Professor
Mosey Nicholas J
Chapter
4

Page:
of 3
Accountability, 107- is a feature of systems and social institutions: it means that
mechanisms are in place to determine who took responsible action, and who is
responsible.
Banner ads, 112- A graphical display on a Web page used for advertising. The banner
is linked to the advertiser’s site so that a person clicking on it will be taken there
Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), 124- The most common kind of computer-related
RSI is carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), in which pressure on the median nerve through
the wrist’s bony structure, called the carpal tunnel, produces pain. The pressure is
caused by constant repetition of keystrokes: in a single shift, a word processor may
perform 23 000 keystrokes. Symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome include numb-ness,
shooting pain, inability to grasp objects, and tingling. Millions of workers have been
diagnosed with carpal tunnel syndrome.
Computer abuse, 121- is the commission of acts involving a computer that may not
be illegal but are considered unethical. The popularity of the Internet and e-mail has
turned one form of computer abuse—spamming—into a serious problem for both
individuals and businesses.
Computer crime, 121- is the commission of illegal acts through the use of a computer
or against a computer system. Computers or computer systems can be the object of the
crime (destroying a company’s computer centre or a company’s computer fi les), as well
as the instrument of a crime (stealing computer lists by illegally gaining access to a
computer system using a home computer).
Computer vision syndrome (CVS), 124- refers to any eyestrain condition related to
display screen use in desktop computers, laptops, e-readers, smart-phones, and
handheld video games. CVS affects about 90 percent of people who spend three hours
or more per day at a computer (Beck, 2010). Its symptoms, which are usually temporary,
include headaches, blurred vision, and dry and irritated eyes.
Cookies, 111- are small text files deposited on a computer hard drive when a user
visits websites. Cookies identify the visitor’s web browser software and track visits to the
site
Copyright, 115- is a statutory grant that protects creators of intellectual property from
having their work copied by others for any purpose for a period of at least 50 years
Descartes’ rule of change, 108- If an action cannot be taken repeatedly, it is not
right to take at all. This is the slippery-slope rule: An action may bring about a small
change now that is acceptable, but if it is repeated, it would bring unacceptable changes
in the long run. In the vernacular, it might be stated as “once started down a slippery
path, you may not be able to stop
Digital divide, 123- Large disparities in access to computers and the Internet among
different social and economic groups and different locations
Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA), 117- of 1998 is providing some copyright
protection. The DMCA implemented a World Intellectual Property Organization Treaty
that makes it illegal to circumvent technology-based protections of copyrighted materials.
Internet service providers (ISPs) are required to take down sites of copyright infringers
that the ISPs are hosting, once they are notified of the problem.
Due process, 107- is a related feature of law-governed societies and is a process in
which laws are known and understood and there is an ability to appeal to higher
authorities to ensure that the laws are applied correctly
Ethical “no free lunch” rule, 108- Assume that virtually all tangible and intangible
objects are owned by someone else unless there is a specific declaration otherwise (the
ethical “no free lunch” rule). If something someone else has created is useful to you, it
has value, and you should assume the creator wants compensation for this work
Ethics, 102- refers to the principles of right and wrong that individuals, acting as free
moral agents, use to make choices to guide their behaviours. Information systems raise
new ethical questions for both individuals and societies because they create
opportunities for intense social change and thus threaten existing distributions of power,
money, rights, and obligations.
Golden Rule, 108- Do unto others as you would have them do unto you
Immanuel Kant’s Categorical Imperative, 108- If an action is not right for anyone to
take, it is not right for anyone
Information rights, 104- The rights that individuals and organizations have with
respect to information that pertains to themselves
Informed consent, 110- consent given with knowledge of all the facts needed to
make a rational decision
Intellectual property, 115- is considered to be intangible property created by
individuals or corporations
Liability, 107- extends the concept of responsibility further to the area of laws.
Liability is a feature of political systems in which a body of laws is in place that permits
individuals to recover the damages done to them by other actors, systems, or
organizations
MP3, 117- music files on the internet
Nonobvious relationship awareness (NORA), 106- technology that can find obscure
hidden connections between people or other entities by analyzing information from many
different sources to correlate relationships
Opt-in, 113- Model of informed consent that prevents an organization from collecting
any personal information unless the individual specifically takes action to approve
information collection and use
Opt-out, 113- Model of informed consent that permits the collection of personal
information until the consumer specifically requests that the data not be collected
Patent, 116- A legal document that grants the owner an exclusive monopoly on the
ideas behind an invention for between 17 and 20 years; designed to ensure that
inventors of new machines or methods are rewarded for their labour while making
widespread use of their inventions
Privacy, 109- The claim of individuals to be left alone, free from surveillance or
interference from other individuals, organizations, or the state
Profiling, 105- The use of computers to combine data from multiple sources and
create electronic dossiers of detailed information on individuals
P3P, 113- (Platform for Privacy Preferences Project) Industry standard designed to
give users more control over personal information gathered on web sites they visit
Repetitive stress injury (RSI), 124- The most common occupational disease today.
RSI occurs when muscle groups are forced through repetitive actions often with high-
impact loads (such as tennis) or tens of thousands of repetitions under low-impact loads
(such as working at a computer keyboard)
Responsibility, 107- is a key element of ethical action. Responsibility means that
you accept the potential costs, duties, and obligations for the decisions you make
Risk Aversion Principle, 108- Action that produces the least harm or the least
potential cost of the candidate ethical principles. Some actions have extremely high
failure costs of very low probability (e.g. building a nuclear generating facility in an urban
area) or extremely high failure costs of moderate probability (speeding and automobile
accidents). Avoid these high failure-cost actions, paying greater attention to high-failure-
cost potential of moderate to high profitability
Safe harbor, 110- is a private, self-regulating policy and enforcement mechanism
that meets the objectives of government regulators and legislation but does not involve
government regulation or enforcement.
Spam, 121- is junk e-mail sent by an organization or individual to a mass audience of
internet users who have expressed no interest in the product or service being marketed
Spyware, 112- technology that aids in gathering information about a person or
organization without their knowledge
Technostress, 124- the newest computer-related malady is technostress, which is
stress induced by computer use. Its symptoms include aggravation, hostility towards
humans, impatience, and fatigue
Trade secret, 115- Any intellectual work product- a formula, device, pattern, or
compilation of data- used for a business purpose can be classified as a trade secret
Utilitarian Principle, 108- Achieves the higher or greater value. This rule assumes
you can prioritize values in a rank order and understand the consequences of various
courses of action.