ITM 301 Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Network Segment, Internetworking, Netbios

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ITM 301 - Friday, September 23, 2016
Chapter 3 Ho Data Is Transported Oer Netorks
TCP/IP PROTOCOLS
TCP/IP is a suite of protocols, including TCP, IP (IPv4 and IPv6) UDP, ARP, and others.
It’s ope ad outale ad it also adds a heade to data iheited fo the lae
before it.
The following is a summary about headers and trailers:
1. Layer 7-5 Data and instructions, known as the payload, are generated by an
app running on the source host.
2. Layer 4 The Transfer layer protocol adds a header to the payload. This header
includes a port number to identify the receiving app on the destination host.
3. Layer 3 The Network layer adds its own header and becomes a packet.
4. Layer 2 The packet is passed down to the Data Link layer on the NIC, which
encapsulates the data with its own header and trailer, creating a frame.
5. Layer 1 The Physical layer on the NIC receives the frame and places the actual
transmission on the network.
6. The receiving host de-encapsulates the message at each layer in reverse order
and presents the payload to the receiving application
Connectivity devices are specialized devices that allow two or more networks or
multiple parts of one network to connect and exchange data.
i.e. A router or a switch
TCP (Transmission Control Protocol)
It operates in the Transport layer of the OSI model and provides reliable data delivery
services. The following are 3 characteristics of TCP:
Connection-oriented protocol TCP ensures that a connection or session is
established by using a three-step process called a three-way handshake.
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ITM 301 - Friday, September 23, 2016
Sequencing and checksums TCP sends a character string called a checksum;
TCP on the destination host generates a similar string. If both fail to match, the
destiatio host asks the soue to etasit the data. Beause essages do’t
alwas aie i the sae ode the’e eated, TCP attahes a sequence
number to each segments so the destination host can reorder them.
Flow control It’s the poess of gaugig the appopiate ate of tasissio
based on how quickly the recipient can accept data.
TCP manages these characteristics by posting data fields in the TCP header at the
beginning of the TCP segment.
Fields in a TCP Segment
The following 2 figures lists the fields included in a TCP segment and define them.
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ITM 301 - Friday, September 23, 2016
TCP Three-Way Handshake
It’s pefoed efoe TCP tasits the atual data.
Three transmissions are sent before data is transmitted:
Step 1 Request for a connection (SYN)
Step 2 Respond to the request (SYN/ACK)
Step 3 Connection established (ACK)
After these three transmissions, the payload or data is sent.
Sequence numbers will be increased by the number of bits included in each received
segment, as confirmation that the correct length of message was received.
UDP (User Data Protocol)
It provides no eo hekig o seueig ad it’s lak of opleit akes it oe
efficient than TCP.
It can be useful in situation in which a great volume of data must be transferred quickly,
suh as lie audio o ideo tasissios oe the Iteet. It’s also more efficient for
carrying messages that fit within one data packet.
It contains only 4 fields: Source port, Destination port, Length, and Checksum
The use of checksum is optional in IPv4, but required for IPv6 transmissions.
IP (Internet Protocol)
It belongs on the Network layer of the OSI model and specifies how and where data
should e delieed, iludig the data’s soue ad destiatio addess.
It’s a potool that eales TCP/IP to internetwork, that is, to traverse more than one
LAN segment and more than one type of network through a router.
It is a ueliale ad oetioless potool as it does’t guaatee delie of data
and no connection is established before the data is transmitted.
It depends on TCP to ensure that data packets are delivered to the right addresses.
The following are fields in IPv4 packets and IPv6 packets:
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