Chapter 1 RISK MANAGEMENT AND SOURCES OF LAW
Process of identifying, evaluating and responding to the possibility of harmful events
The appropriate strategy depends upon the circumstances. Goal is not to eliminate risks
but to manage them by:
Some of the most important forms of risk management:
Insurance- contract in which one party agrees in exchange for a price to pay a
certain amount of money if another party suffers a loss. (liability insurance and
1. Liability insurance: provides a benefit if the purchaser is held liable for
doing something wrong.
2. Property insurance: provides a benefit if the purchasers property is
Exclusion clauses: is contractual term that changes the usual rules of liability.
While exclusion clauses are subject to certain rules and restrictions, the law
generally allows people to sign away their right to sue.
Incorporation: limited liability that if something goes wrong it is usually only the
company itself, and not the people who run it that may be held liable.
AN INTRODUCTION TO THE LEGAL SYSTEM
A law is a rule that can be enforced by the courts.
Civil law systems trace their history to ancient Rome.
Jurisdiction refers to a geographical area that uses the same set of laws.
Common law systems trace their history to England. Consequently, most jurisdictions
that were settled by English colonists continue to use the common law. Public Law is concerned with governments and the ways in which they deal with their
citizens. It includes:
• Constitutional Law
• Administrative law
• Criminal Law
• Tax Law
Constitutional Law provides the basic rules of our political and legal systems. It
determines who is entitled to create and enforce laws, and it establishes the fundamental
rights and freedoms that Canadians enjoy.
Administrative law is concerned with the creation and operation of the bodies that are
created by governments to delegate and assign responsibility to a variety of agencies,
boards, commissions, and tribunals that help manage the workload in governments.
Criminal law deals with offences against the state. In other words it is concerned with
people who break rules that are designed to protect society as a whole.
• White collar crimes- created by people in suites. i.e. a manager who steals money
from the petty cash drawer is a white collar criminal.
• Corporate crime- Car dealership rolls back the odometer on its vehicles.
The various branches of government, such as parliament, administrative bodies, and
courts, require a great deal of money in order to operate. Tax law is concerned with the
rules that are used to collect money for purposes of public spending.
Private law: is concerned with the rules that apply in private matters. Both parties in a
private dispute are usually private persons, either individuals or organizations like
Private law is usually divided into 3 parts:
• The law of torts
• The law of contracts
• The law of property
The law of Torts: A tort is a private wrong, an offence against a particular person.
1. Intentional Torts: assault and false imprisonment.
2. Business Torts: such as deceit and conspiracy
3. Negligence: covers most situations in which one person carelessly hurts another. The law of contracts: is concerned with the creation and enforcement of agreements,
contracts are involved in;
1. The sale of goods
2. The use of negotiable instruments, such as cheque’s.
3. Real estate transactions, such as the purchase of land.
4. The operation of corporations.
5. The employment relationship that exists between a business and its stakeholders.
The law of property: is concerned with the acquisition, use, and disposition of property.
Divided into 3 main parts;
1. Real property: which involves land and things that are attached to land
2. Personal property: which involves things that can be moved from one place to
3. Intellectual property: which involves things that consist of original ideas, such as
patents and copyrights
Other areas of property law:
1. The law of succession deals with the distribution of a person’s property after
2. The law of trusts deals with a situation in which one person holds property on
behalf of another.
Sources of law
The 3 sources of law:
1. the constitution
3. the courts
The most important source of law is the constitution. This document creates the basic
rules for Canadian society, including our political and legal systems. The fact that it
provides the foundation for everything else has two significant consequences.
1. First every other law in the country must be compatible with it.
2. Second the constitution is very difficult to change.
Canada is a federal country because it has two levels of government.
Federal: the parliament of Canada, which is located in Ottawa, governs the country as a
whole. It is composed of two parts the house of commons consists of the members of parliament (MP’s), who are elected from every province and territory. The Senate
consists of senators who are appointed to their Jobs.
The Division of power states the areas in which each level of government can create
The residual power gives the federal government authority over everything that is not
The charter was introduced to protect basic rights and freedoms. Some deal with
democratic rights (section 3-5), some deal with legal rights that usually arise in criminal
cases (section 8-14), some deal with official languages and minority languag