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Chapter 3

Chapter 3

7 Pages
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Department
Human Resources
Course Code
MHR 405
Professor
Louis Pike

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Chapter Three: Perception and Personality
Section 1: factors that influence perception and how to manage our perceptions in the work place
Section 2: characteristics that shape our personality and the influence of these characteristics have on our
interpretation of the workplace situations.
Introduction to perception and personality in the workplace
Martin Seligmans book Learned Optimism suggests how we perceive a situation can influence our
behavioural response to situations. He distinguishes between traits exhibited by an optimistic
person and those exhibited by a pessimistic person, suggesting that anyone can learn how to be
more positive in their interactions by identifying and using many of the strengths and personality
traits we already posses, such as humour, kindness, and generosity concept he calls as learned
optimisim
Optomists are more successful at work and in school.
Social perception and why it is important in the workplace
Perception involves the way we view the world around us. Involves 5 senses. Primary vehicle
through which we come to understand ourselves and our surroundings.
Social perception is the process of interpreting information about another person
Factors that influence our perception of others. (pg 69)
1.Characteristics of ourselves as perceiver
Familiarity; does not always mean we are accurate about our perceptions
Attitude; eg) doubting womens ability to negotiate
Mood; we remember more, positive impressions
Cognitive structures; an individuals pattern of thinking; allows individual to perceive
multiple characteristics of another person rather than attending a few traits
Self-concept; when we think good of ourselves, we think good of others
2.Characteristics of target person we are perceiving
Physical features; height, weight, estimated age, race and gender. Loud person dresses
outlandishly. Physical attractiveness influences favourability.
Verbal communications; topics, tone, accent, and make judgments based on input
Non-verbal communications; eye contact, facial expressions, body movements, and posture
are all deciphered by perceiver in an attempt to form an impression of the target. Intentions
of the target are inferred by the perceiver.
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3.Characteristics of situation in which the interaction takes place
Strength of situational cues; discounting principle: assumption that an individuals
behaviour is accounted for by the situation. Eg) sales person seems warm asking you
questions about hobbies; but in fact trying to sell you a potential car
Influence of culture on perception
Cultural dimensions: assertiveness, collective vs individualistic, humane orientation
Valuing diversity has been recognized as the key to international competitiveness.
Impression management: Managing the perceptions of others
Impression Management: process by which individuals try to control the impression others have
of them
oSelf-enhancing; focus on enhancing others impression of the person (name dropping and
appearance)
oOther-enhancing; focusing on individual whose impression is to be managed (flattery,
granting favours)
Barriers to Social Perception (pg 74)
Selective Perception: process of selecting information that supports our individual viewpoints
while discounting info that threatens viewpoints
Stereotyping: generalization about a group of people
oReduces info about other people to a workable level
oEg) Aboriginals
First impression error: tendency to form lasting opinions about an individual based on initial
perceptions
Halo effect: perceptual barrier that can result from basing one impression of a person on one
prominent characteristic. (eg. Donations to charity)
Projection: overestimating the number of people who share our own beliefs, values and
behaviours.
Self-Fulfilling Prophecies: situation in which our expectation about people affect our interaction
with them in such a way that our expectations are fulfilled. (eg. Potential worker, manager
prepares him and grooms worker to be ready)
Attribution in Org. (pg77)
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Description
Chapter Three: Perception and Personality Section 1: factors that influence perception and how to manage our perceptions in the work place Section 2: characteristics that shape our personality and the influence of these characteristics have on our interpretation of the workplace situations. Introduction to perception and personality in the workplace Martin Seligmans book Learned Optimism suggests how we perceive a situation can influence our behavioural response to situations. He distinguishes between traits exhibited by an optimistic person and those exhibited by a pessimistic person, suggesting that anyone can learn how to be more positive in their interactions by identifying and using many of the strengths and personality traits we already posses, such as humour, kindness, and generosity concept he calls as learned optimisim Optomists are more successful at work and in school. Social perception and why it is important in the workplace Perception involves the way we view the world around us. Involves 5 senses. Primary vehicle through which we come to understand ourselves and our surroundings. Social perception is the process of interpreting information about another person Factors that influence our perception of others. (pg 69) 1. Characteristics of ourselves as perceiver Familiarity; does not always mean we are accurate about our perceptions Attitude; eg) doubting womens ability to negotiate Mood; we remember more, positive impressions Cognitive structures; an individuals pattern of thinking; allows individual to perceive multiple characteristics of another person rather than attending a few traits Self-concept; when we think good of ourselves, we think good of others 2. Characteristics of target person we are perceiving Physical features; height, weight, estimated age, race and gender. Loud person dresses outlandishly. Physical attractiveness influences favourability. Verbal communications; topics, tone, accent, and make judgments based on input Non-verbal communications; eye contact, facial expressions, body movements, and posture are all deciphered by perceiver in an attempt to form an impression of the target. Intentions of the target are inferred by the perceiver. www.notesolution.com
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