•E.g. managers control rewards of salary increases
•Reward power lead to better performance
•Only works if person values the reward being offered (valence) and perceives high performance-reward
Coercive Power: power based on a person’s ability to cause an unpleasant experience.
•E.g. my supervisor fires me if I neglect my duties.
•Coercive and legitimate power increase employee perception of stress
•Coercive consequences (warnings, disciplinary actions) is a necessary component for effectively
influencing the negative behaviour of some employees.
•Verbal abuse, bullying, physical punishment are ineffective uses of coercive power to influence
•Uk passed “dignity at work” bill for anti-bullying legislation
Referent Power: elusive power based on interpersonal attraction.
•E.g. my supervisor makes me feel personally accepted
•Charisma: personal trait that gives a leader referent power over followers
•Strong predictor of employee’s satisfaction with supervisors
•Charismatic leaders show greater capacity for igniting conflict among followers...? York U study
•Does not come with position
Expert Power: power based on a person’s specialized knowledge or skills that another needs. (pg 258)
•Does not come with position: has to be earned
•Effective in influencing others
•“My supervisor has considerable professional experience to draw from helping me do my work”
•3 conditions for it to work
oTarget must trust that expertise given is accurate
oKnowledge involved must be relevant and useful to the target
oTarget’s perception of the agent as an expert is crucial
•Called the power of the future
•It has the strongest relationship with performance and satisfaction of the 5 forms of power
•Through expert power, vital skills, abilities and knowledge are passed within org