•John Kotter (not trait theorist), identifies 4 competencies of good leaders
Drive and energy*, intelligence, mental and emotional health, integrity
E.g. Link Cook, CEO of Shell, is described as fiercely competitive with a steely will.
Known for high energy and biz judgement.
•David Traversi, The Source of leadership: Eight drives of high-impact leader, drivers of effective
leadership are presence (consciousness and mindfulness)
Openness; clarity of thought, emotion, and behaviour; intention; personal
responsibility; intuition; creativity; and connected communication
•Leadership agility: ability to make wise and effective decisions amid complex changing conditions
has become important.
•Simple most important thing leaders do, is make good judgement calls.
Behavioural Leadership Perspective
•Proposed that effective leaders behave in certain desirable ways
•Leaders varied in the degree to which they were perceived as task-oriented, people-oriented,
neither, or both.
•Task-oriented and people-oriented are independent of each other.
•Task-oriented style (aka production oriented, and autocratic) spells out duties and specific tasks,
tells people what to do and how to do it, ensures employees follow rules, and encourages employees
to reach peak performance.
oIn earlier studies, referred to as initiating structure, because leaders with this style tended
to initiate a lot of structure, so that people would have very clear directions.
oE.g. Brenda Hoffman, given 6 month to do what TSX has not accomplished in 4 years (install
a new, multimillion dollar trading engine to replace crash-prone CATS). She has set the tone
for aggressive targets. “You don’t want to follow around like a bunch of tadpoles”
•Employee, people-oriented, democratic style: shows trust and respect, engages in two-way
communication, listens, encourages, gives recognition, and provides socio-emotional support to
oIn earlier studies, referred to consideration because when this style was used, they viewed
them as considerate and respectful.
•Many senior managers believe in the old “command and control” – recipe for failure.
•Hughes believes, like Winston Hodgins, that senior mgmt has to be genuinely people-oriented and
care about employee development.