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Chapter 3

Chapter 3

8 Pages
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Department
Human Resources
Course Code
MHR 405
Professor
Louis Pike

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Chapter 3 – Perception and personality
Introduction to social perception
Social perception is the process of interpreting information about another person
It can be seen in job interviews, interviewer makes a decision in few minutes about the
candidate based on perception
Factors that influence our perception of others
3 major factors influence our perception of others
oCharacteristics of ourselves as perceivers
Many characteristics of the perceiver can affect social perception
For example, familiarity with the target (the person being perceived)
When familiar with a person, we have multiple observations on which to
base our impression of him/her
Perceiver’s attitudes also affect social perception
For example, if you are interviewing candidates for a very important
position in our company that requires negotiating contracts with suppliers,
most of them are male, you may feel that women are not capable of the
position
Mood can have a strong influence on the way we view someone
When in good mood, we have positive impressions of others, when in bad
mood, we have negative impression of others
Cognitive structure is the individuals pattern of thinking that also affects
social perception
Some peoples viewpoints are more on physical traits such as height,
weight and some prefers personality traits
Self-concept is another factor that affect social perception
Person with a positive self-concept notices positive attributes in another
person
www.notesolution.com
oCharacteristics of the target
Characteristics of the target means the person being observed influence
social perception
Physical appearance is a big factor in our perception of other people
Verbal communication affects our perception of other people
This perception is based on the persons voice tone, accent and what they
are talking about
Nonverbal communication tells a lot about a person
For example eye contact, facial expression, body movements
oCharacteristics of the situation
The situation in which the interaction takes place between the perceiver
and the target also influences the perceivers viewpoint of the target
The strength of situational cues (signal) also affects social perception
Discounting principle is the assumption that an individuals behavior is
responsible for by the situation
For example, you may find out that a car salesperson that has a warm and
friendly manner asks about your work and hobbies and seems genuinely
interested in your taste in cars. Can you assume that this behavior reflects
the salespersons personality? You probably cannot, because of the
influence of the situation. This person is trying to sell you a car and when
dealing with possible customers, car salesman is likely to win the
customers’ business by taking an interest in their personal life
Barriers to social perception
There are 6 barriers to social perception
oSelective perception
It is the process of selecting information that supports our individual
viewpoints while ignoring information that threatens our viewpoints
(example on pg 83)
www.notesolution.com
oStereotyping
It is the generalization about a group of people
Reduces information about other people to a workable level
oFirst-impression error
It happens when we observe a persons behavior in our first meeting and
assume that this behavior reflects what the person is really like
oProjection
It is the misperception of the commonness of our own beliefs, values and
behaviours such that we overestimate the number of others who share
these things
We assume that others are similar to us and our own values and beliefs are
appropriate
oSelf-fulfilling prophecies
It is the situation in which our expectations about people affect our
interaction with them in such a way that our expectations are fulfilled
oAttribution in organizations
Attribution theory explains how we identify the causes of our own
behavior and that of other people
For example, if you do very well on a test, you might say that you are
smart or studied hard to do well on the test, if you attribute your success to
ability or effort, this is an internal attribution
If you say that, it was an easy test or good luck, this is an external
attribution
Attribution process may be affected by 2 common errors
oFundamental attribution is the tendency to make attributions to internal causes
when focusing on someone elses behaviour
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 3 Perception and personality Introduction to social perception Social perception is the process of interpreting information about another person It can be seen in job interviews, interviewer makes a decision in few minutes about the candidate based on perception Factors that influence our perception of others 3 major factors influence our perception of others o Characteristics of ourselves as perceivers Many characteristics of the perceiver can affect social perception For example, familiarity with the target (the person being perceived) When familiar with a person, we have multiple observations on which to base our impression of himher Perceivers attitudes also affect social perception For example, if you are interviewing candidates for a very important position in our company that requires negotiating contracts with suppliers, most of them are male, you may feel that women are not capable of the position Mood can have a strong influence on the way we view someone When in good mood, we have positive impressions of others, when in bad mood, we have negative impression of others Cognitive structure is the individuals pattern of thinking that also affects social perception Some peoples viewpoints are more on physical traits such as height, weight and some prefers personality traits Self-concept is another factor that affect social perception Person with a positive self-concept notices positive attributes in another person www.notesolution.com
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