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Chapter 4

Chapter 4

8 Pages
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Department
Human Resources
Course Code
MHR 405
Professor
Louis Pike

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Chapter 4 – Motivation at work
What is motivation and why does it matter?
Motivation is the set for forces, internal (individual needs and motives) and external
(environmental forces), that initiate work-related behavior and determine its form,
direction, intensity and duration
Intrinsic motivation is a persons internal drive to do something because of such things
as interest, challenge and personal satisfaction
Extrinsic motivation is a motivation that comes from outside the person, such as pay,
tangible rewards, or a promotion
In order for employees to perform effectively, they must first understand what is expected
of them and also they need both ability and willingness (motivation)
Need theories of motivation
Maslows hierarchy of needs
Abraham Maslow proposed a need theory of motivation emphasizing psychological and
interpersonal needs and also physical needs and economic needs
Need hierarchy is Maslows theory that people are motivated by 5 sets of needs
(physiological needs, safety needs, belongingness needs, esteem needs and self-
actualization needs) this theory also explains that as a lower need is fulfilled, the person
becomes motivated by the next need in the hierarchy
oPsychological needs are the needs food and shelter
oSafety needs are security and confidence
oBelongingness needs are needs for love, friendship and community
oEsteem needs are recognition and status
oSelf-actualization needs are to fulfill ones potential and to be all that one can be
Progression hypothesis is the lowest level of unsatisfied need motivates behavior
oApplies that as 1 level of need is met, people moves on to the next higher level of
need (ex. If psychological need is met, moves on to safety need)
www.notesolution.com
Social needs are met through social activities such as team retreats, company golf days,
picnics and reward programs
Companies try to help employee self-actualize by supporting their career development,
assigning challenging assignments, and by giving them promotions and imaginative
developmental moves
Theory X and Theory Y
Created by Douglas McGregor in 1950s
Theory X is motivating employees by meeting their lower level physiological and safety
needs
Theory Y is motivating employees by meeting their higher level belongingness, esteem
and self-actualization needs
In general when employees are trusted, they tend to be more effective
ERG theory
Clayton Alderfer believed that the original need hierarchy was not quite accurate
Simplified Maslows 5 needs hierarchy to 3
Called these 3 sets of needs existence (E), relatedness R) and growth (G)
ERG theory explains that people are motivated by 3 sets of needs and as a lower need is
fulfilled, person becomes motivated by the next need, but if a higher need is not met,
people will go back to a lower one
Existence needs are Maslows psychological and safety needs
Relatedness needs are interpersonal safety, belongingness and interpersonal esteem
Growth needs are self-esteem and self-actualization
Frustration regression hypothesis is that when people are frustrated in their ability to
satisfy a higher need, they go back to the next lower needs and increases their desire to
satisfy those needs
For example, an employee might start looking for friendship and socializing at work when
he becomes stuck in a job but cant leave because of poor economy
McClellands theory of learned needs
www.notesolution.com
David McClelland’s theory suggest that secondary needs are needed as well
These secondary needs are
oDid not progress in a hierarchical manner
oWere learned
oVaried based on an individuals personality
Need for achievement is a learned need that concerns issues of excellence, competition,
challenging goals, determined and overcoming difficulties
oPerson with this need seeks excellence in performance, enjoys difficult and
challenging goals and is determined and competitive in work activities
oPeople with a high need in this have 3 characteristics
First, they set goals, difficult and reasonable
Second, they like to receive feedback on their progress toward these goals
Third, they do not like having external events or other people interfere
with their progress toward the goals
Need for power is a learned need that is concerned with making an impact on others,
influence others, change people or events and make a difference in life
oIt is interpersonal since it involves influence attempts directed at other people
oPeople with a high need in this tend to be in control of people and events
oSocialized power is used for the social benefit of many
oPersonalized power is used for the personal gain of the individual
Need for affiliation is a learned need concerned with establishing and maintaining warm,
close, intimate relationships with other people
oPeople with a high need in this are motivated to express their emotions and
feelings to others while expecting other people to do the same in return
oPeople with moderate to low needs are more likely to feel comfortable working
alone for extended periods of time
Herzbergs two-factor theory of motivation
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 4 Motivation at work What is motivation and why does it matter? Motivation is the set for forces, internal (individual needs and motives) and external (environmental forces), that initiate work-related behavior and determine its form, direction, intensity and duration Intrinsic motivation is a persons internal drive to do something because of such things as interest, challenge and personal satisfaction Extrinsic motivation is a motivation that comes from outside the person, such as pay, tangible rewards, or a promotion In order for employees to perform effectively, they must first understand what is expected of them and also they need both ability and willingness (motivation) Need theories of motivation Maslows hierarchy of needs Abraham Maslow proposed a need theory of motivation emphasizing psychological and interpersonal needs and also physical needs and economic needs Need hierarchy is Maslows theory that people are motivated by 5 sets of needs (physiological needs, safety needs, belongingness needs, esteem needs and self- actualization needs) this theory also explains that as a lower need is fulfilled, the person becomes motivated by the next need in the hierarchy o Psychological needs are the needs food and shelter o Safety needs are security and confidence o Belongingness needs are needs for love, friendship and community o Esteem needs are recognition and status o Self-actualization needs are to fulfill ones potential and to be all that one can be Progression hypothesis is the lowest level of unsatisfied need motivates behavior o Applies that as 1 level of need is met, people moves on to the next higher level of need (ex. If psychological need is met, moves on to safety need) www.notesolution.com
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