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Chapter 8

Chapter 8

9 Pages
111 Views

Department
Human Resources
Course Code
MHR 405
Professor
Louis Pike

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Chapter 8 – Creativity and decision making
Individual decision making at work
Decision making is a conscious process of making choices among one or more
alternatives and developing a commitment to a course of action
Programmed decisions is a simple, routine matter for which a manager has established
decision rule
Non-programmed decisions is new, complex decisions that requires a creative solution
Example on pg 242
Making effective individual decisions
Effective decisions are timely decision that meet desired objectives and is accepted by the
individuals affected by it
Ethical issues in individual decision making
Ethical decision making in companies is influenced by many factors
oIndividual differences
oOrganizational rewards
oPunishments
Ethical decision is a decision with ones personal values and commonly held values of
the organization and society
Models of decision making
4 decision making models are
oThe rational model of decision making
Rationality is a logical, step-by-step approach to decision making with a
thorough analysis of alternatives and their consequences
Rational model has the following important assumptions
The outcome will be completely rational
www.notesolution.com
The decision maker has a consistent system of preferences, which
is used to choose the best alternative
The decision maker is aware of all the possible alternatives
The decision maker can calculate the probability of success for
each alternative
The rational model of decision making contains 8 steps
Recognizing the problem
Identifying the objective
Gathering and evaluating data and diagnosis
Listing and evaluating alternatives
Selecting the alternative that best meets the decision objective
Implementing the decision
Gathering feedback
Following up
oThe bounded rationality model of decision making
It has 4 assumptions
Managers select the first alternative that is satisfactory
Managers recognize that their conception of the world is simple
Managers are comfortable making decisions without determining
all the alternatives
Managers make decisions by rule of thumb or heuristics
Bounded rationality is a theory that suggests that there are limits to how
rational a decision maker can actually be
Satisfice means managers select the first alternative that isgood enough”
because the costs in time and effort are too great to optimize
Heuristics are shortcuts in decision making that save mental activity
www.notesolution.com
oThe garbage can model of decision making
It proposes that decisions in organizations are random and unsystematic
They are influenced by 4 independent streams
Problems or concerns
Solutions or methods
Participants more or less ready to be active in the decision-making
matter
Choice opportunities
Interaction between these 4 streams determines whether a decision will be
made and what the outcomes will be
Quality of decision depends on timing
Right participants must find the right solution to the right problem at the
right time
oThe intuitive decision-making models
Intuition is the internal pool of cumulative experience, from which one
distills at a level below consciousness, a direction, or an advice to do or
not do something
Intuition has been variously described as follows
A sophisticated form of reasoning based on “chunking” that an
expert improves after years of job-specific experience
Being able to bring to bear on a situation everything youve seen,
felt, tasted and experienced in an industry
The ability to know or recognize quickly and readily the
possibilities of a situation
Accessing the internal reservoir of a cumulative experience and
expertise developed over a period of years
Individual influences on decision making
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 8 Creativity and decision making Individual decision making at work Decision making is a conscious process of making choices among one or more alternatives and developing a commitment to a course of action Programmed decisions is a simple, routine matter for which a manager has established decision rule Non-programmed decisions is new, complex decisions that requires a creative solution Example on pg 242 Making effective individual decisions Effective decisions are timely decision that meet desired objectives and is accepted by the individuals affected by it Ethical issues in individual decision making Ethical decision making in companies is influenced by many factors o Individual differences o Organizational rewards o Punishments Ethical decision is a decision with ones personal values and commonly held values of the organization and society Models of decision making 4 decision making models are o The rational model of decision making Rationality is a logical, step-by-step approach to decision making with a thorough analysis of alternatives and their consequences Rational model has the following important assumptions The outcome will be completely rational www.notesolution.com
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