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Chapter 2

MHR 405 Chapter 2: MHR 405 // Chapter 2 // week 3 readings

Human Resources
Course Code
MHR 405
Frank Miller

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MARS Model of Individual Behaviour and Performance
Early Forumula — Person x Situation = performance
— ability x motivation = performance “skill and will model”
MARS MODEL = Motivation, ability, role perceptions, skill,
All four factors are critical
— If one of them is low in a given situation, employee would perform the task poorly
— Motivation
The forces within a person that affect his or her direction, intensity, persistence of a voluntary
direction — the path along which people steer their effort
intensity — the amount of effort allocated to the goal
persistence — continuing the effort for a certain amount of time
The natural aptitudes and the learned capabilities required to successfully complete a task
Aptitudes —Natural talents that help employees learn specific tasks more quickly and to
perform better
ie. Finger aptitude
Learned capabilities — the skills and knowledge that you currently possess (wane over
time when not in use)
—Role perceptions
How clearly people understand the job duties(roles)assigned to or expected of them
Range from role clarity to role ambiguity
Important because they represent how well employees know where to direct their effort
Role clarity = efficiency
Motivates employees because they have a higher belief that their efforts will produce the
expected outcomes
Role clarity exists in three forms:
—1. Employees have clear role perceptions when they understand the specific duties or
consequences for which they are accountable
—2. Role clarity exists when employees understand the priority of their various tasks
and performance expectations
• exists in the allocation of time and resources to various tasks, such as how
much time you should coach employees each week versus meet with suppliers
and clients
—3. Role clarity is about understanding the preferred behaviours or procedures for
accomplishing the assigned task.

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Conditions beyond the employee’s immediate control that constrain or facilitate behaviour and
ie. time / budget/ work facilities / environmental cues that guide employee behaviour
1. Task performance
— Goal directed behaviours under the individual’s control that support organizational
— Three goal directed behaviours :
Proficiency - Performing the work efficiently and accurately
adaptability - how well the employee responds to, copes with, supports new
circumstances and work patterns
•Proactivity - How well the employee anticipates environmental change and
initiates new work patterns that are aligned with those changes
2. Organizational Citizenship
— Organizational Citizenship behaviours (OCBs)
Various forms of cooperation and helpfulness to others that support the organization’s social
and psycho-logical context
ie) Directed towards individuals - assisting coworkers with their work problems, adjusting assigned work
schedules to accommodate coworkers, showing genuine courtesy toward coworkers, sharing work
ie) Represent cooperation and helpfulness toward the organization - supporting company’s public image,
taking discretionary action to help the organization avoid potential problems, offering ideas beyond those
required for their own job, attending voluntary functions that support the organization, keeping up with new
developments in the organization
Effects :
— Higher task performance (bc. more support)
— Increased team performance
— Higher work family conflict (takes time and energy)
— Potential lower career success
3. Counterproductive Work Behaviours
— Counterproductive Work behaviours (CWBs)
Voluntary behaviours that have the potential to directly or indirectly harm the organization
ie. Harassing coworkers, creating unnecessary conflict, deviating from preferred work methods, being
untruthful ,stealing, sabotaging work, avoiding work obligations, wasting resources
4. Joining and Staying with the Organization
Companies with high turnover rates have high cost of replacement
When people leave, vital information and knowledge is lost too = lower productivity, poorer
customer service etc.
5. Maintaining work attendance
— Some reasons employees are absent and late for work:
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