MHR 405 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Theory X And Theory Y, Work Motivation, Belongingness

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Chapter 4: Motivation at Work
Motivation The set of forces internal (individuals needs and motives) and external (environmental
forces), that initiate work-related behaviour and determine its form, direction, intensity, and duration
Intrinsic Motivation A person’s internal drive to do something because of such things as interest,
challenge and personal satisfaction
Extrinsic Motivation Motivation that comes from outside the person, such as pay, tangible rewards or
a promotion
Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
1. Self Actualization
2. Esteem Needs
3. Belongingness (Social) needs
4. Safety and Security needs
5. Physiological Needs
Need hierarchy Maslow’s theory that people are motivated by 5 sets of needs, and that as a lower
need is gratified, the person becomes motivated by the next need in the hierarchy
Progression Hypothesis The lowest level of ungratified need motivates behaviour
Theory X and Theory Y
Douglas McGregor
Built on Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs higher and lower
Used to explain managerial bias towards employees
Theory X A set of assumptions of how a manage individuals who motivated by lower order of
needs Example: Treating employees like kids (lower pay jobs)
Theory Y A set of assumptions of how to manage individuals who are motivated by higher
order needs Example: Trusting employees and motivating them
ERG Theory
Clayton Adlerfer simplified Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs from 5 to 3
Existence, Relatedness, and Growth
ERG Theory People are motivated by three sets of needs and that as a lower level need is
gratified, the person becomes ,motivated by the next need in the hierarchy; but when unable to
fulfill a higher need, they will regress to a lower one
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